by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

The acronym CMYK (pronounced as the individual letters: CM Y K) stands for the process colors cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. These four process colors are the transparent ink colors that a commercial press uses to recreate the illusion of a full-color photograph or illustration on the printed page. If you look at any printed color image in a magazine, especially if you look at it through a magnifying glass (a "loupe"), you will see separate dots of ink in each of the four colors. These four colors, in varying intensities determined by the dot size and space around the dot, combine together to create the wide range of colors you appear to see.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

CLUT stands for color look-up table. A CWT is a software palette or set of 256 colors (it's actually a resource) that resides within the system software and most color-capable applications. On a computer with 8-bit color (those that are only capable of displaying a total of 256 colors), a CWT is a necessary reference to let the computer know which 256 colors out of the available 16.7 million colors (24-bit color) it can use at one time. If you think of all those 16.7 million colors as being a big (ok, very big) box of crayons, you can visualize a CWT as being a small box of handpicked colors that someone has handed you to work with. Many applications give you the option of choosing which 256 colors you want to work with. You often can set up your own palette for each particular file. For instance, if you were painting a picture of a man's face, a palette of 256 different flesh tones would be more useful than a palette containing 256 colors found in the range between black and burgundy. Take the time to explore your particular application and its documentation for a variable palette feature.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

CGM stands for computer graphics metafile, which is an international standard file format for graphic images. Most CGM files are vector graphics, although it is possible to store raster graphics in the CGM format. The purpose of creating a standard is to enable users of different systems and different programs to exchange the same graphic file. It is extremely difficult, though, to create a standard so strict that it can work seamlessly everywhere. A CGM file created in one program may not necessarily be read by every other program.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

A technique called double buffering permits one set of data to be used while another is collected. It is used with graphics displays, where one frame buffer holds the current screen image while another acquires the bits that will make up the next image. When it is ready, the buffers are switched, the new screen is displayed, and the process continues. 

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

Bump Mapping: An extension of the technique Of TEXTURE MAPPING to create more realistic 3D images, in which an additional BITMAP (the bump map) applied to a surface contains not colour data but small displacements to be applied to the surface normal at each point. After the image is rendered, these displacements alter the angles of reflected rays in such a way as to convey the illusion of surface relief, even though the surface actually remains completely smooth.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

Bitmapped Display: Strictly, a display in which each PIXEL on the screen is represented by a BIT stored in VIDEO MEMORY which would limit its applicability to black-and-white images only. More frequently used, however, to describe any display in which each pixel corresponds to a byte or word in video memory, which covers all contemporary computer colour displays. The term was coined in distinction to the now-obsolete VECTOR DISPLAY, which drew lines instead of pixels.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

Bit Block Transfer (bitblt, bitblit): An operation used in computer graphics programming that moves a block of bits en masse from one location in memory to another. If these bits represent display pixels, the effect is to move part of an image from one place to another, and so bitblt is much used in graphical user interface code to display WINDOWS, ICONS and FONT characters quickly. Because this operation is used so extensively, many modern microprocessors provide special instructions to speed it up and a hardware GRAPHICS ACCELERATOR usually contains a dedicated unit called a BLITTER that performs the operation as quickly as possible.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

Bitmapped Font, Bitmap Font: A character FONT in which each individual letter form is stored as a table of PIXELS (a picture), in contrast to an OUTLINE FONT where each character is stored as a set of lines or strokes (a description of how to draw the character). Bitmapped fonts are fast and easy to RENDER onto a screen or printer - by simply copying the bits for the character - and for this reason were preferred on older computer systems (up to and including MS-DOS PCs) that used CHARACTER-BASED displays.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

Bitmap: A table of digital BITS used to represent, for example, a picture or a text character, each bit in the table being interpreted as the presence or absence of a screen PIXEL or a printed dot. The principle can be illustrated by the following table, which represents the letter Z as a 6 x 6 table of bits:

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

A bitmap is an image or shape of any kind-a picture, a text character, a photo-that's composed of a collection of tiny individual dots. A wild landscape on your screen is a bitmapped graphic, or simply a bitmap. Remember that whatever you see on the screen is composed of tiny dots called pixels. When you make a big swipe across the screen in a paint program with your computerized "brush," all that really happens is that you turn some of those pixels on and some off. You can then edit that bitmapped swipe dot by dot; that is, you can change any of the pixels in the image. Bitmaps can be created by a scanner, which converts drawings and photographs into electronic form, or by a human artist (like you) working with a paint program.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

The positively charged ELECTRODE that attracts ELECTRONS within a current-consuming device such as an electrolytic cell, discharge tube or valve. In a current-producing BATTERY, the anode is the electrode that receives electrons internally and hence is connected to the external negative terminal.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

Analogue video: A video signal that is captured transmitted and stored as a continuously varying voltage, rather than as a stream of bits as in digital video. Up until the advent of digital TV in the late 1990S, television worked by transmitted analogue video signals, and older video tape recorders such as VHS, PAL, Betamax and Umatic all store analogue signals.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

Aspect ratiois a fancy term for "proportion," or the ratio of width to height. for example 4:3 for a computer screen. For instance, if a direction in a software manual tells you to "hold down the Shift key while you resize a graphic in order to maintain the aspect ratio," it simply means that if youdon'thold down the Shift key you will stretch the image out of proportion.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

Aliasing

Aliasing has two definitions, depending on whether you're talking about pictures or sounds.

When a diagonal line or a curved arc drawn on the screen looks as if it was made out of bricks, when it looks like stair steps instead of a slide, the effect is technically called aliasing. Most of us would say it had the jaggies. It can be ameliorated by the technique of ANTIALIASING.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

On a color monitor, each pixel has three dots arranged in a triad-red, green, and one blue dot. Each dot can deal with a maximum of 8 bits, which makes a total of 24 bits per pixel. With the possibility of combining the 256 levels of color in each of the three color dots, 24-bit color gives you the awesome potential of 16.7 million colors on your screen (256 times 3). Many of these colors differ so slightly that even the most acute observer couldn't tell the difference between them. Simply stated: 16 million colors is more than enough. (How do you get black and white if there are three colored dots? If all dots are on, the pixel is white; if all dots are off, the pixel is black.)

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

On a grayscale monitor, each pixel can accept from 1 to 8 bits of data, which will show from 1 to 256 shades of gray.

If there are 2 bits per pixel, there are four possible combinations of on and off: on/on, off/off, on/off, and off/on. Each of these combinations displays a different shade of gray (including black and white).

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

If an item is monochrome, that means it uses only one color on a differently colored background. In a monochrome monitor, these pixels have only one color phosphor. The picture is created with, say, black dots (or lines) against a white background. A monochrome image pixel can have two values, on (white) or off (black), and this can be represented by 1-bit as either 0 or 1. Most printers are monochrome, meaning they only print black toner on white paper.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

Data compression is the function of presentation layer in OSI reference model. Compression is often used to maximize the use of bandwidth across a network or to optimize disk space when saving data.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

All operations on computers are in terms of 0’s and 1’s and hence figures are also to be stored in terms of 0’s and 1’s. Thus a picture file, when viewed inside the memory, can be no different from other files – a string of Os and 1s. However, their treatment when they are to be displayed makes the difference. Pictures are actually formed with the help of frame-buffer display as follows

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Basic of Computer Graphics

Interactive graphics display consists of three components

 

a) A display controller

b) A digital memory or frame buffer

c) A television monitor

d) A video controller

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.