by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Open System Interconnection (OSI) model, an ISO standard for worldwide communication Networks that defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Layering the communications process means breaking down the communication process into Smaller and Easier to handle interdependent categories. The convention and rules used in such communications are collectively known as Layer protocolOpen Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is developed by ISO (International organization for standardization) in 1984. ISO is the organization dedicated to defining global communication and standards.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The Media Access Control (MAC) data communication Networks protocol sub-layer, also known as the Medium Access Control, is a sub-layer of the data link layer specified in the seven-layer OSI model. The medium access layer was made necessary by systems that share a common communications medium. Typically these are local area networks. The MAC layer is the "low" part of the second OSI layer, the layer of the "data link". In fact, the IEEE divided this layer into two layers "above" is the control layer the logical connection (Logical Link Control, LLC) and "down" the control layer The medium access (MAC).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The pair of twisted is the simplest transmission medium. it consists of one or more pairs of electrical son arranged spiral. This type of support is suitable for transmission both analog and digital.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Coaxial cables are the guided media that carnes the signal of higher frequency range compared to twisted pair cable. Coaxial cables are also called coax. (short form). Two types of coaxial cables are widely used: 50 ohm cable and 75 ohm cable. 50 ohm cable is used for digital transmission and 75 ohm cable is used for analog transmission. Due to the shield provided, this cable has excellent noise immunity. It has a large bandwidth and low losses. Co-axial cables are easy to install. They are often installed either in a device to device daisy chain (Ethernet) or a star (ARC net).

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) An error detection mechanism in which a special number is appended to a block of data in order to detect any changes introduced during storage (or transmission). The CRe is recalculated on retrieval (or reception) and compared to the value originally transmitted, which can reveal certain types of error. For example, a single corrupted bit in the data results in a one-bit change in the calculated CRC, but multiple corrupt bits may cancel each other out.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• In sliding window method, multiple frames are sent by sender at a time before needing an acknowledgment.

• Multiple frames sent by source are acknowledged by receiver using a single ACK frame.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Hubs/Repeaters are used to connect together two or more network segments of any media type. In larger design, signal quality begins to deteriorate as segment exceeds their maximum length. A hub provides the signal amplification required to allow a segment to be extended a greater distance.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Hamming code is technique developed by R.W. Hamming for error correction. This method corrects the error by finding the state at which the error has occurred.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• Bluetooth is, with the infrared, one of the major wireless technologies developed to achieve WPAN. Bluetooth is a wireless LAN technology used to connect devices of different functions such as telephones, computers (laptop or desktop), notebooks, cameras, printers and so on.

• Bluetooth project was started by SIG (Special Interest Group) formed by four companies  IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba for interconnecting computing and communicating devices using short-range, lower-power, inexpensive wireless radios.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• In this method of flow control, the sender sends a single frame to receiver & waits for an acknowledgment.

• The next frame is sent by sender only when acknowledgment of previous frame is received.

 
About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.



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