by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

Random Access, which is to issue a completely random time, relies on the Aloha method. The latter takes its name from an experiment performed on a network connecting the various islands of the Hawaiian Archipelago early 1970. In this method, when a coupler has information to transmit, it sends it without worry about other users. If there is a collision, that is to say superposition of two signals or more users, the signals become indecipherable and are lost. They are subsequently transmitted, as shown in Figure, in which the couplers 1, 2 and 3 collide. The coupler 1 transmits its field first because he shot the smallest timer. Then, the module 2 emits, and its signals collide with the coupler 1. Both derive a random time of retransmission. The coupler 3 is listening while the couplers 1 and 2 are silent, so that the frame of the coupler 3 passes successfully. Technical aloha is the origin of all the random access methods.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

In case of TDM, time slots are allocated to channels, even if they have no information to transmit. This is just wastage of the bandwidth and to overcome this inefficiency of standard TDM, a technique known as STDM has been developed where time is allocated to lines only when it is required. This is achieved with the use of intelligent devices that are capable of identifying when a terminal is idle.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

For digital sources, two alternative technologies have evolved for multiplexing. These are Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Code division Multiplexing (CDM). TDM provides a way to merge data from several sources into a single channel for communication over telephone lines, a microwave system or a satellite system. TDM can be implemented in two ways. These are synchronous TDM and asynchronous TDM. Asynchronous TDM is popularly known as Statistical TDM.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

• In TDMA, the bandwidth of channel is dividend amongst various stations on the basis of time.

• Each station is allocated a time slot during which it can sent its data i.e. each station can transmit its data in its allocated time slot only.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

In Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM), multiple channels are combined onto a single aggregate signal for transmission. The channels are separated in the aggregate by their frequency. It is explained in the Figure where a frequency dimension is subdivided into several non-overlapping frequency bands. Each channel ci is allotted its own frequency band as depicted in Figure.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

NRZ-L (No return to zero level): this kind of encoding uses negative voltage to represent a binary 1 and positive voltage to represent a binary 0. As shown under: non return to zero is related with the voltage i.e. voltage never returns to a value of zero and the value of the voltage during a bit time is known as level. bit time is related with the amount of time one bit of data occupies.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

In the 1970s, the Department of Defense, or DOD (Department Of Defense), decided before the proliferation of machines using different, incompatible communication protocols, to define its own architecture. This architecture, called TCP / IP, is the source of the Internet. It is also adopted by many private networks, called intranets.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

Data encapsulation simply means adding the IP header to the data. The IP header consists of five or six 32-bit words; the sixth word is attributed to the IP options field.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

CRC (cyclical redundancy checking) is a rather sophisticated error checking routine used to assure that two communicating computers are really getting the correct data. There are a whole bunch of these error correction and checking methods out there, but they all have pretty much the same objective: making sure that no data is lost or misinterpreted when two computers are exchanging information over the phone lines (through a modem, of course).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Multiple Access

SDH recommendation was standardized by ITU-T (G.707 and G.708):

• G.707: Synchronous Digital Bit Rate;

• G.708: Network Node Interface for the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.

Found in SDH flows at 155, 622 and 2488 Mbit/s SONET.

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.



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