by Dinesh Thakur

The support real-time applications such as video conferencing or telephone speech, is the challenge to the Internet. These applications require qualities Service as conventional Internet protocols can not offer. RTP was designed to try to solve this problem, which is more directly in a multipoint environment, in paying for both the management of real-time administration multipoint session.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A Routing Algorithm is a method for determining the routing of packets in a node. For each node of a network, the algorithm determines a routing table, which in each destination, matches an output line. The algorithm should lead to a consistent routing, that is to say without loop. This means that you should not route a packet a node to another node that could send back the package.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

An Internet environment results from the interconnection of physical networks by routers. Each router is connected directly to two or more networks, hosts are generally connected to a single network, but this is not mandatory.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

IP addresses are assigned independently of the hardware addresses of the machines. To send a datagram on the Internet, the network software must convert the IP address into a physical address, used to transmit the frame.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The CR (Constraint-based Routing) algorithm is applied when opening the way or if it reopens path is dynamic.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol) comes from the Internet world and is described in RFC 1932. It allows to search the ATM corresponding to an IP address in an NBMA network of several DSL. Specifically, NHRP allows the resolution of an IP address of a workstation on a remote DSL NBMA address of a network (ATM address, frame relay, etc.).

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In a mesh network, the routing of packets is part of a complex algorithm, by the distribution of decisions, which are both space and time. A node should know the status of all the other nodes before deciding where to send a packet, which is impossible to achieve.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A parameter that controls how long a network switch or ROUTER will store learned IP addresses in its address table before discarding them for new ones.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In TCP communications, not only TCP but also UDP (User Datagram Protocol) can meet the functional requirements defined in the transport layer. Unlike TCP, UDP is a connectionless type protocol in which the sending terminal does not check whether data has been received by receiving terminal. In other words, it is a less reliable protocol. However, this protocol makes it possible to omit a variety of processes thus reducing the load on the CPU.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is an error reporting protocol that is an integral part of the IP protocol. ICMP communicate control data, information data, and error recovery data across the network. Problems that are less severe than transmission errors result in error conditions that can be reported. For example, suppose some of the physical paths in Internet fail causing the Internet to be partitioned into two sets of networks with no path between the sets. A datagram sent from a host in one set to a host in other cannot be delivered.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Routing refers to the process of selecting the shortest and the most reliable path intelligently over which to send data to its ultimate destination. IP routing protocol makes the distinction between hosts and gateways. A host is the end system to which data is ultimately deliverable. An IP gateway, on the other hand, is the router that accomplishes the act of routing data between two networks. A router can be a specialized device supporting multiple interfaces connected to a different network or a computer multiple interfaces (commonly called a multihomed host) with routing services running in that computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

These are OSPF, IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System Intra-Domain Routing Exchange Protocol).

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Because of the global nature of Internet system, it becomes more difficult to centralize the system management and operation. For this reason, the system must be hierarchical such that it is organized into multiple levels with several group loops connected with one another at each level. Therefore, hierarchical routing is commonly used for such a system.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

For routing in a network having two or more routers, routing tables are used to determine the destination to which a packet is to be forwarded. If two or m9re routes are available, the route that requires the least possible cost (link cost) should be selected so that the packet can be sent to the destination more quickly and more reliably. Cost can be generally considered as the number of routers via which the packet is to be sent. If changes are made to this network configuration, there are two methods to update the contents of routing tables, which will be described next.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The problem encountered while performing local routing may be summarized as follows:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The major objective of network design is to select the network service and to determine the transmission speed for the system. Following are the typical examples of network using WAN and network services:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

• The distance vector multicast routing protocol is multicast routing protocol that takes the routing decision based upon the source address of the packet.

• This algorithm constructs the routing tree for a network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

• Internet Group Management Protocol is a group management protocol that mainly manages the group membership in a multicast network.

• In a multicast network, multicast routers are used to route packets to all the computers that are having membership of a particular group.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

• This protocol was developed by Rick Adams in 1984.

• The initial purpose of this protocol was to connect Sun workstation to the Internet over a dial-up line using modem.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

In Routing Protocol, Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send data on physical traffic. In different network operating system the network layer perform the function of protocol routing. In TCP/IP the IP protocol is the ability to form connections between different physical networks with the help of a Routing Protocol.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The distance-vector routing Protocol is a type of algorithm used by routing protocols to discover routes on an interconnected network. The primary distance-vector routing protocol algorithm is the Bellman-Ford algorithm. Another type of routing  protocol algorithm is the link-state approach.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

HDLC - Short for High-level Data Link Control, a transmission protocol used at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI seven layer model for data communications. The HDLC protocol embeds information in a data frame that allows devices to control data flow and correct errors. HDLC is an ISO standard developed from the Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) standard proposed by IBM in the 1970's. HDLC NRM (also known as SDLC) .



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The SDLC or the Synchronous Data Link Control was first developed by IBM in 1975. It was modified by ISO and was named HDLC. Thus SDLC is a subset of HDLC and includes several minor additional features.