by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Unbound transmission media extend beyond the limiting confines of cabling. They provide an excellent Communication Networks alternative for WANS. The lack of physical restrictions provides larger bandwidth as well as wide area capabilities. Unbound media typically operate at very high frequencies. The three types of unbound transmission media are: Radio wave, Micro wave, Infrared.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Bound Transmission Media in Communication Networks are the cables that are tangible or have physical existence and are limited by the physical geography. Also known as Conducted systems, wired media generally employ a metallic or glass conductor which serves to conduct, some form of electromagnetic energy.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The first layer (physical layer) of Communication Networks the OSI Seven layer model is dedicated to the transmission media. Due to the variety of transmission media and network wiring methods, selecting the most appropriate media can be confusing - what is the optimal cost-effective solution. When choosing the transmission media, what are the factors to be considered?

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) : UTP is the copper media, inherited from telephony, which is being used for increasingly higher data rates, and is rapidly becoming the de facto standard for horizontal wiring, the connection between, and including, the outlet and the termination in the communication closet.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Definition: Optical fiber consists of thin glass fibres or plastic or any dielectric medium which can carry light signals from one end to the other. Optical fiber refers to the medium and the technology which is related, or you can say that it is connected with the transmission of information in the form of light impulses and this transmission is done along with a glass or plastic wire or fiber. The wires of fiber optic cable can carry much more information than any other conventional copper wire. The typical optical fiber consists of a very narrow strand of glass called the core. Around the core is a concentric layer of glass called the cladding.
Optical fibres make use of light to send information through the optical medium.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Data link layer is the second layer in OSI reference model and lies above the physical layer. The physical layer provides only a raw bitstream service between computers. The data link layer provides data reliability and provides tools to establish, maintain, and release data link connections among the network nodes.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Hubs/Repeaters are used to connect together two or more network segments of any media type. In larger design, signal quality begins to deteriorate as segment exceeds their maximum length. A hub provides the signal amplification required to allow a segment to be extended a greater distance.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The term Transmission Mode defines the direction of the flow of information between two communication devices i.e. it tells the direction of signal flow between the two devices.

There are three ways or modes of data transmission: Simplex, Half duplex (HDX), Full duplex (FDX)



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Congestion is an important issue that can arise in packet switched network. Congestion is a situation in Communication Networks in which too many packets are present in a part of the subnet, performance degrades. Congestion in a network may occur when the load on the network (i.e. the number of packets sent to the network) is greater than the capacity of the network (i.e. the number of packets a network can handle.). Network congestion occurs in case of traffic overloading.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

In Communication Networks External electromagnetic signals can cause incorrect delivery of data. By this, data in the communication Networks can be received incorrectly, data can be lost or unwanted Communication Networks data can be generated. Any of these problems are called transmission errors in communication networks.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Error detection and correction has great practical importance in maintaining data (information) integrity across noisy Communication Networks channels and lessthan- reliable storage media.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The Media Access Control (MAC) data communication Networks protocol sub-layer, also known as the Medium Access Control, is a sub-layer of the data link layer specified in the seven-layer OSI model. The medium access layer was made necessary by systems that share a common communications medium. Typically these are local area networks. The MAC layer is the "low" part of the second OSI layer, the layer of the "data link". In fact, the IEEE divided this layer into two layers "above" is the control layer the logical connection (Logical Link Control, LLC) and "down" the control layer The medium access (MAC).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

ALOHA: ALOHA is a system for coordinating and arbitrating access to a shared communication Networks channel. It was developed in the 1970s by Norman Abramson and his colleagues at the University of Hawaii. The original system used for ground based radio broadcasting, but the system has been implemented in satellite communication systems.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

RS-232C is a long-established standard ("C" is the current version) that describes the physical interface and protocol for relatively low-speed serial data communication Networks between computers and related devices.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Data transmission, digital transmission, or digital communication Networks is the electronic transmission of information that has been encoded digitally (as for storage and processing by computers) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication Networks channel.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

IEEE 802.5 Token Ring: Token ring is the IEEE 802.5 standard for a token-passing ring in Communication networks. A ring consists of a collection of ring interfaces connected by point-to-point lines i.e. ring interface of one station is connected to the ring interfaces of its left station as well as right station. Internally, signals travel around the Communication network from one station to the next in a ring.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Digital communication networks have become a core technology in advanced building automation systems. Communication networks such as MS/TP, ARCNET, and Ethernet can be categorized as discrete-event dynamic systems (DEDS) (Casandras and Lafortune 1999).

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Firstly we understand the concept of what is broadband connection in communication networks. Broadband is a high-capacity high-speed Data transmission medium. This can be done on a single cable by establishing different bandwidth channels. Broadband technology can be used to transmit voice, data and video over long distances simultaneously.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The most and latest wireless communication use electromagnetic airwaves either infrared or radio frequency to communicate information from one point wireless communication networks to another wireless communication networks Point. Without relaying on a physical connection. Radio waves are often referred to as radio carriers because they simply perform the function of delivering energy to a remote receiver.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Coaxial cables are the guided media that carnes the signal of higher frequency range compared to twisted pair cable. Coaxial cables are also called coax. (short form). Two types of coaxial cables are widely used: 50 ohm cable and 75 ohm cable. 50 ohm cable is used for digital transmission and 75 ohm cable is used for analog transmission. Due to the shield provided, this cable has excellent noise immunity. It has a large bandwidth and low losses. Co-axial cables are easy to install. They are often installed either in a device to device daisy chain (Ethernet) or a star (ARC net).

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.