by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

1 Literally, not synchronized; that is, proceeding at its own pace.

2 In electronics, it describes circuits that do not operate in step with other devices controlled by a shared CLOCK SIGNAL.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is the result of an initiative launched in 2001 by the WiMAX Alliance. Its aim was to promote the IEEE 802.16 standard by proposing to verify compliance and equipment interoperability. As we shall see, many options have been proposed to achieve communication.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

From the early 1900s until now, long distance communication has primarily been in the form of the telephone line. Now telephone lines are being used for more than the transmission of voice; they are also used for the transmission of computer data. There are many reasons why someone might want to transfer data between one PC and another using phone lines.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Bit Error: An error in a single BIT within a BYTE or WORD of data transmitted over a noisy channel: for example if the byte sent was 11111111 then a received value of 11111101 would represent a bit error in the second bit. There are well-known ERROR DETECTION AND CORRECTION algorithms that can correct one or more such bit errors, given some extra, redundant information, and these techniques are widely applied in the mechanisms of HARDDISK and CD-ROM drives, as well as in telecommunication systems.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

EtherTalk is Apple Computer software that allows the Macintosh to hook into Ethernet networks. To use EtherTalk and Ethernet, the Mac must have the Ethernet interface card installed inside the computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Another solution to obtain a broadband distribution network is to use the wiring of cable operators, when it exists. This wiring has long been made of CATV (cable TV), whose bandwidth exceeds 800MHz easily. Today, this infrastructure is slightly modified by the introduction of systems HFC (Hybrid Fiber/Coax), combining a fiber portion between the head end and the beginning of the service by the CATV. This topology is illustrated in Figure.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The quality of service is essential to ensure the transfer of real time data such as voice or video. Such services require isochronous transfers, that is to say data transfers that enable to vary the time between the different frames of the same transmission. In the case of a video application, for example, over this period, the greater the quality deteriorates, whether audible or visual. To minimize this delay, priority mechanisms were introduced by an extension to the 802.11 standard, called 802.11e.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The transfer rate, or "data rate" refers to the speed with which data is transferred from its source to its destination, such as from one computer to another over a network, or from the computer to the disk drive. It's measured like we would measure any rate of speed-in units of information per the unit of time, like miles per hour. On a computer you may hear transfer rates expressed in terms like bits per second, megabytes per second, or characters per second.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Before transmitting information on a transmission medium, it must be encoded of adequately. Networks must allow very high speeds over distances more or shorter. In this context, three approaches are possible for coding bits from applications:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

With pre-IEEE 802.11n products, the maximum speed reached in late 2007 is 108 Mbit / s, that is to say double the IEEE 802.11a and 802.11g standards. This flow rate is achieved by increasing the density of transmitted bits. Technological advances are such in the field of radio transmission it is now possible to improve greatly this flow. 802.11n networks offer a potential gross rate of 540 Mbit / s. In fact, the actual flow rate is much lower and is of the order of 100 Mbit/s in the best case.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

When the frames transmitted on the PON are Ethernet, EPON talking. The features of this network are identical to those of the other PON: distribution throughout the network, where only the station specified in the Ethernet frame can retrieve the information conveyed. The standardization of EPON technology is performed by the IEEE 802.3ah group. This group has several objectives, including that of introducing Ethernet in the local loop under the name of EFM (Ethernet in the First Mile). The objective was to replace the ATM technology, very expensive to implement on a multipoint technology, the Ethernet technology.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Setting up and securing a wireless router in your office is something anyone can do. Here, we’ll take you step-by-step through the physical installation and setup of a wireless router.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

How to encode the digital signal is an important function of coupler communication. This main function is to adapt the signals transmission channel. In the case of local networks, the transmission rate is tens or hundreds of megabits per second. Therefore, the choice of representation Physical data is important. To perform the synchronization bit, that is to say, to ensure that each bit is read at the right time, you need a minimum of transitions are made to extract the clock signal.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Many of today’s devices rely heavily on access to your office network and the Internet. In this tutorial, we’ll show you how to connect devices to the company network.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

ISO (International Standardization Organization) standard has its own architecture as the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection). The architecture ISO is the first to be defined, and so relatively parallel to the Internet. The distinction between the two is that the ISO formally defines the different layers architecture, while the Internet architecture is applied to achieve a practical environment.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

On the Passive Optical Network (PON), it is possible to transit ATM cells according to the technique developed by the working group FSAN (Full Service Access Network). This solution was then standardized in G.983 recommendation ITU-T. Both ends of the optical shaft are called OLT (Optical Line Termination) and ONU (optical network unit). For reasons of energy loss, it is not possible to exceed fifty branches on the trunk. The figure illustrates the architecture of a passive optical network.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Short communication

The infrared light is used for many years for the communication directly between nearby devices to each other, such as remote control and your television, for example.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The extension of the corporate network

Although there are a multitude of applications in WiFi technology, it is clear as its primary target is the corporate network. As we have seen, the WiFi was designed for a wireless version of Ethernet and the latter is found in almost all businesses. In most cases, a company that decides be equipped with a WiFi network already has a wired Ethernet network. It is therefore generally build a wireless extension to an existing wired network.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Ethernet networks at 10 Mbit/s were the first to be introduced in the market. They still represent a significant proportion, although standards to 100 Mbit/s tend to supplant them. This section reviews the various products of the Ethernet shared working at a speed of 10 Mbit/s.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Integrated Services Digital Network is a telephone system network. It is a wide area network becoming widely available. Prior to the ISDN, the phone system was viewed as a way to transport voice, with some special services available for data. The key feature of the ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system.

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.