by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

ISDN provides two basic types of interfaces to users.

 

  1. Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
  2. Primary Rate Interface (PRI)
 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Another big wireless network category is ad-hoc networks, where the infrastructure is composed as resorts themselves. The latter agreed to play the role of the router to allow the passages of information from one device to another, without these terminals are connected directly.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Products for ISDN technology from different vendors even with similar features and options may create some compatibility issues. CCITT after good deliberations over the years published the first significant ISDN standards in a number of red binders in 1984 and they were simply known as the Red Book standards. The group subsequently met four years later which culminated in the publication of the 1988 Blue Book standards. These international publications were the foundation for the evolving ISDN national standards. The CCITT eventually was reformed into the group, which is now called the ITU- T. The standards used to define ISDN make use of the OSI reference model with the first three layers of this OSI reference model.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a proposal by Bellcore (Bell Communications Research), SONET is a technique of transport between two nodes, which defines the interface adopted for the NNI (Network Node Interface). She initially concerned that the interconnection of telephone networks of major operators, PTT, carrier, etc. The difficulty of standardization has been to find a compromise between the American, European and Japanese interests to interconnect different operator networks and national networks.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

• Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) was designed by IETF and is described in RFC 3261.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

(xDSL) A whole class of digital telecommunication technologies that can offer BROADBAND data rates, up to 50 megabits per second (Mbps), over the existing copper wires of the analogue public telephone system. By employing advanced modulation schemes, xDSL technologies support Internet or other data access simultaneously with voice telephone calls. In the meta-acronym xDSL, the x stands for the first letter of any of the individual acronyms used for these technologies: ADSL, HDSL, SDSL and VDSL.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

When data is sent to the receiver, flow control should be carried out so that the flow of data does not overwhelm the receiver. Any receiving device has a limited speed at which it can process the incoming data and a limited amount of memory to store the incoming data. The receiving device should be able to inform the sending device before these limits are reached so that the transmission is stopped or reduced, temporarily.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Routing is the primary element of an ad-hoc network. It takes routing software in each network node to manage the transfer of IP packets. The simplest solution is obviously to have a direct routing, as illustrated in Figure, in which each network station can directly reach another station, without going through an intermediary. The simplest case corresponds to a small cell, with a diameter less than 100 m, as in an 802.11 network in ad-hoc mode.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Wireless networks are developing due to the flexibility of their interface, which allows a user to change positions while staying connected. Communications between terminals can be made directly or via base stations, called access points, or AP (Access Point). Communication between access points can be wireless or cable. The flow rates of these networks are tens of megabits per second.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

The application of methods derived from INFORMATION THEORY to the detection and correcting of errors in DIGITAL data streams. Error correction is of the utmost importance in most areas of computing and communications technology. For example: Internet's TCP protocol provides error detection, CD-ROMS devote around 14% of their total data capacity to redundant error correction information (and music CDS only a little less), and modem speeds above 28 kilobits per second would be impossible over public telephone lines without error correcting PROTOCOLS such as v.90.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

In the world of asynchronous communication (over Mac or PC serial ports), CTS stands for clear to send. When a computer needs to communicate with an outside device physically connected to it (peripheral), the two of them have to go through this preamble of making sure each of them is ready to hear what the other has to say, and confirm that they are going to be speaking the same language. Somewhere near the beginning of this preamble, one device will send an RTS (Request To Send) message. The receiving device will then reply with a CTS message "Yes, I'm now ready for anything you want to send me." I know, the whole thing sounds like you may be sitting there drumming your fingers on your desk, waiting for these flipping machines to get done with their senseless checklist. Relax. Like most processes done by a computer, this one takes less than a millisecond.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

A Wi-Fi network is made with many amenities, such as access points, antennas, bridges, controllers, etc. In this section, we will make an overview of the equipment in order to provide some features.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

The LAP-F protocol (Link Access Protocol-Frame) was born with frame relay, designed to improve the performance of networks from the X.25 recommendation UITT. The latter has proved too heavy and therefore unable to increase rates, it took in search for a simplification.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Applications that are conventionally used on terminal equipment put in implement a point-to-point communication, that is to say the part of the communication micro to go look for information to only one other point. Many other applications involve the cooperation of several processes. For example, a search in a distributed database in which information is spread across multiple sites, uses a simultaneous request for information to several centers. To make this request, the application and all associated protocol layers must manage multipoint. This way of communicating is more powerful than that which is to apply a first site, and once the response, a second, and so on.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Ethernet on the WAN aims to transport Ethernet frames over long distances like states, countries, or the whole world, while providing quality service. Its advantages are a very low cost, the possibility of oversizing of the network, highly granular, well known technology and very simple and finally simplified management, since Ethernet is everywhere. You can go very fast in throughput with different levels of 1 and 10 Gbit/s and soon the 100 Gbit/s. The register of difficulties include the lack of reliability, packet loss less controlled and quality of services more difficult to obtain. However, several technologies are currently being developed to address these issues and provide a royal way for the arrival of Ethernet on the WAN.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

The frame level (layer 2) is to render a service to the next level just. This service is a transport node to node packet. Specifically, its role is to transport a package of three or message fragment layer of layer 4 from one node to another node. For this, the frame level asks his turn at just below, the physical level, a service of conveying the bits of the frame from one node to another node. This section provides the features necessary to achieve all these actions.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

A sensor array is defined as a set of sensors connected to one another, each sensor being provided with a transceiver. Sensor networks are a new generation networks with specific properties, which do not fall within the conventional architectures.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

Mesh networks (meshed networks) are ad-hoc networks in which routing points are immobile. Customers are connected by a wireless network access points and the access points are connected by wireless links.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

After invading the world of business, Ethernet addresses the longer distances starting with the metropolitan area. The Metro Ethernet was born of this extension. This solution is supported in different settings but especially by the Forum MEF (Metro Ethernet Forum).

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Network Technologies

The local loop is to connect users to the first node, router or switch, the operator with whom the customer has a subscription. Broadband solutions is shared between the ATM for fixed links and Ethernet for wireless backhaul. One of the objectives in the Ethernet local loop is replaced by the ATM Ethernet solutions, particularly in the xDSL modems.

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.