by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Half duplex means data can be relayed in only one direction at a time. Two-way transmission is possible, but the transmissions must be alternate. A walkie-talkie is half duplex-when one person is speaking, she cannot also listen A telephone is full duplex-information can go both ways simultaneously; both ends can talk and hear all the time-so does a modem.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

EtherTalk is Apple Computer software that allows the Macintosh to hook into Ethernet networks. To use EtherTalk and Ethernet, the Mac must have the Ethernet interface card installed inside the computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Definition: Ethernet (pronounced "eether net") is a computer network technology which is used in different area networks like LAN, MAN, WAN. Ethernet connecting computers together with cable so the computers can share information. Within each main branch of the network, "Ethernet" can connect up to 1,024 personal computers and workstations.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

From the early 1900s until now, long distance communication has primarily been in the form of the telephone line. Now telephone lines are being used for more than the transmission of voice; they are also used for the transmission of computer data. There are many reasons why someone might want to transfer data between one PC and another using phone lines.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Broadband ISDN (BISON) The next-generation of ISDN technology, with promised bandwidths from 150 megabits per second upward, sufficient to carry video-phone calls and movies. BISON will be carried over FIBRE-OPTIC cabling rather than wire, and the underlying transport protocol will be ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE. Different implementations are planned in the USA, which will employ YNCHRONOUS OPTICAL NETWORK and Europe, which will use SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Bit Error: An error in a single BIT within a BYTE or WORD of data transmitted over a noisy channel: for example if the byte sent was 11111111 then a received value of 11111101 would represent a bit error in the second bit. There are well-known ERROR DETECTION AND CORRECTION algorithms that can correct one or more such bit errors, given some extra, redundant information, and these techniques are widely applied in the mechanisms of HARDDISK and CD-ROM drives, as well as in telecommunication systems.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Let us examine the transmission technique that is to say how a transmitter can send a signal that the receiver will recognize as a 1 or a 0.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

1 Literally, not synchronized; that is, proceeding at its own pace.

2 In electronics, it describes circuits that do not operate in step with other devices controlled by a shared CLOCK SIGNAL.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

AppleTalk: A proprietary LAN protocol that is built into Apple's MACINTOSH computers. AppleTalk is independent of the underlying network transport, and is currently able to run over serial cable (LocalTalk) or over an ETHERNET network (EtherTalk).  An AppleTalk port is built in to all Macs.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The purpose of error control is to ensure that the information received by the receiver is exactly the information transmitted by the sender. As the communication channel is highly unreliable, the receiver must be able to deal with the received data, if it contains error. The term error control is defined as the process of identification or correction of error occurred in the transmitted data. There are two types of error control mechanisms. They are:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Data is transmitted between communication devices in multiples of fixed-length units, typically 8-bits. For example, if the computer is transferring a source program, the data will be made up of a block of 8-bit binary-encoded characters. On the other hand, if the data is in the form of a compiled object code of the program, the data will be made up of a block of 8-bit bytes. At the receiving end, the following parameters are determined to decode and interpret the message correctly.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

This is very simple optical fiber communication system. In this particular scenario, the optical fiber requires one connection to the transmitter side and another connection at the receiver side. In another scenario when it is required to communicate over long distances where more than one length of fiber cable and other supporting equipment are placed in the system.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Like other communication system, fiber optic communication has also a transmitter at one end of the system, which injects information on to the fiber cables. The transmitter processes and translates coded electronic pulse information coming from copper wire into equivalently coded light pulses. The basic concept behind the optical transmitter is that it converts electrical input signals into modulated light for transmission over an optical fiber. The input signal determines the characteristics of the resulting modulated light, which may be turned on and off or may be linearly varied in intensity between two predetermined levels.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

In case of coaxial cables and twisted cable the maximum signal frequency, and hence the information rate that can be transmitted using a solid conductor is limited. Optical fiber differs from both these transmission media in that it carries the transmitted information in the' form of a fluctuating beam of light in a glass fiber rather than as an electrical signal on a wire. This type of transmission has become strong support for digital network owing to its high capacity and other factors favorable for digital communication.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) was set up as an international standard for network architecture. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) took the initiative in setting up OSI. OSI has two meanings. It 'refers to:

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Network Architecture defines the communications products and services, which ensure that the various components can work together. In the early days of data communication systems, the majority of communications were between the DTE and the host computer. Therefore, transmission control procedures were alone enough as communication protocols. However, recent computer systems link with other systems to form a network which result in a situation where different protocols serving different purposes are required. Hence, the network architecture represents a systemization of the various kinds of protocols needed to build a network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

VLANs have the primary role to enable easier configuration and management of large corporate networks built around many bridges. There are several implementation strategies for these virtual networks.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

A switch, which resembles a hub, is known as switching hub. But there is stark difference between hub and switching hub or a switch. Hub acts as a LAN concentrator, and repeater. It consists of a single box with multiple ports. Each port is connected with a separate computer. A signal transmitted by a computer travels to all ports like a bus topology.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

This advises the routers are used to connect dissimilar LANs and perform all the functions of bridges and routers. It operates at all seven layers of the OSI Reference Model. These are actually predecessors of router nowadays and are technology wise more expensive and highly functional. They in general consist of software which resides in a host computer, such as mid-range or mainframe.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Routers are used to connect both similar and dissimilar LANs. Router operates on the network layer of OSI model using the physical layer, data link layer and network layer to provide connectivity, addressing and switching. These are highly intelligent devices. In case of TCP/IP network, Internet Protocol (IP) is used as addresses for network; this is the router which interprets the IP address and delivers the packet reliably.

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.