by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Data is transmitted between communication devices in multiples of fixed-length units, typically 8-bits. For example, if the computer is transferring a source program, the data will be made up of a block of 8-bit binary-encoded characters. On the other hand, if the data is in the form of a compiled object code of the program, the data will be made up of a block of 8-bit bytes. At the receiving end, the following parameters are determined to decode and interpret the message correctly.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

RS-232C is a long-established standard ("C" is the current version) that describes the physical interface and protocol for relatively low-speed serial data communication Networks between computers and related devices.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

It is required that information must be encoded into signals before it can be transported across communication media. In more precise words we may say that the waveform pattern of voltage or current used to represent the 1s and 0s of a digital signal on a transmission link is called digital to digital line encoding. There are different encoding schemes available:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Broadband A communications medium that can carry a wide range of signal frequencies, typically from audio up to video frequencies. In telecommunications the significance of a broadband system is that it can carry television and videoconferencing data as well as voice calls. A broadband medium can be made to carry many signals at once by apportioning its total bandwidth into many independent channels, each of which carries only a specific range of frequencies. In contrast, a BASEBAND can carry only a single channel. ATM, ADSL and Cable TV are all broadband media, while standard ISDN barely qualifies.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

This may be considered as the breakthrough for many of current ideas, algorithms and Internet technologies. It started Paul Baran in 1960s funded by Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), an organization of the united States Defense Department and, therefore, named as Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) predecessor of the modern Internet. It was world's first fully operational packet switching computer network and the world's first successful computer network to implement the TCP/IP reference model that was used earlier by ARPANET, before being used in the Internet. The ARPANET is the first network that planed the seed of interent.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Radio waves, also called radio waves as they were discovered by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1888, are electromagnetic waves, that is to say the combined oscillation of an electric field and a magnetic field. Radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays or gamma rays are all examples of electromagnetic waves.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The most and latest wireless communication use electromagnetic airwaves either infrared or radio frequency to communicate information from one point wireless communication networks to another wireless communication networks Point. Without relaying on a physical connection. Radio waves are often referred to as radio carriers because they simply perform the function of delivering energy to a remote receiver.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Routers are used to connect both similar and dissimilar LANs. Router operates on the network layer of OSI model using the physical layer, data link layer and network layer to provide connectivity, addressing and switching. These are highly intelligent devices. In case of TCP/IP network, Internet Protocol (IP) is used as addresses for network; this is the router which interprets the IP address and delivers the packet reliably.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Gigabit Ethernet or GbE, is the penultimate evolution of Ethernet standard. Several improvements have been made for it to Fast Ethernet at 100 Mbit/s.

The new interface is called modified GMII (Gigabit Media Independent Interface). It includes a data path 8 bits, instead of 4 in the less powerful version. The transceivers operate with a clock operating at 125 MHz.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The purpose of error control is to ensure that the information received by the receiver is exactly the information transmitted by the sender. As the communication channel is highly unreliable, the receiver must be able to deal with the received data, if it contains error. The term error control is defined as the process of identification or correction of error occurred in the transmitted data. There are two types of error control mechanisms. They are:



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.