by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Infrared light transmissions have existed for many years and their use having been limited to TV remote controls and wireless slide projector remote controls. However, they now are assuming a position of some, if still limited, importance. Infrared systems use the infrared light spectrum to send a focused light beam to a receiver, much, as would a microwave system, although no reflective dish is used. Rather, pair of lenses is used, with a focused lens employed in the transmitting device and a collective lens in the receiving device as shown in Figure. Infrared is an airwave, rather that a conducted transmission system. Although generally used in short-haul transmission, they do offer substantial bandwidth, but with risks of interference.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

This may be considered as the breakthrough for many of current ideas, algorithms and Internet technologies. It started Paul Baran in 1960s funded by Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), an organization of the united States Defense Department and, therefore, named as Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) predecessor of the modern Internet. It was world's first fully operational packet switching computer network and the world's first successful computer network to implement the TCP/IP reference model that was used earlier by ARPANET, before being used in the Internet. The ARPANET is the first network that planed the seed of interent.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Radio waves, also called radio waves as they were discovered by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1888, are electromagnetic waves, that is to say the combined oscillation of an electric field and a magnetic field. Radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays or gamma rays are all examples of electromagnetic waves.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Digital communication networks have become a core technology in advanced building automation systems. Communication networks such as MS/TP, ARCNET, and Ethernet can be categorized as discrete-event dynamic systems (DEDS) (Casandras and Lafortune 1999).

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

A high-speed network interface card (NIC) forcommunication networks is used.A network interface controller (also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.Network interface cards, commonly referred to as NICs are used to connect a PC to a computer network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Like repeaters, bridges are used to connect similar LANs together, for example, Ethernet-to-Ethernet and operate at the bottom two layers of the OSI model, i.e. physical layer and data link layer. As it operates on second layer of the OSI model,' it relays only necessary data to other signals. MAC addresses (physical addresses) are used to determine whether data is necessary or not.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

In Communication Networks External electromagnetic signals can cause incorrect delivery of data. By this, data in the communication Networks can be received incorrectly, data can be lost or unwanted Communication Networks data can be generated. Any of these problems are called transmission errors in communication networks.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Data transmission, digital transmission, or digital communication Networks is the electronic transmission of information that has been encoded digitally (as for storage and processing by computers) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication Networks channel.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The purpose of error control is to ensure that the information received by the receiver is exactly the information transmitted by the sender. As the communication channel is highly unreliable, the receiver must be able to deal with the received data, if it contains error. The term error control is defined as the process of identification or correction of error occurred in the transmitted data. There are two types of error control mechanisms. They are:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Definition: Media access control (MAC) and logical link control (LLC) are the sublayers of the data link layer (Layer 2) in OSI Reference Model. 'MAC' is also refer to as MAC layer. It use MAC protocols to provides unique addressing identification and channel access control mechanism for network nodes to communicate with other nodes across a shared channel.



 
About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.



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