by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Distributed Operating System is a model where distributed applications are running on multiple computers linked by communications. A distributed operating system is an extension of the network operating system that supports higher levels of communication and integration of the machines on the network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Multiprocessor Operating System refers to the use of two or more central processing units (CPU) within a single computer system. These multiple CPUs are in a close communication sharing the computer bus, memory and other peripheral devices. These systems are referred as tightly coupled systems.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Both the Shell and the Kernel are the Parts of this Operating System. These Both Parts are used for performing any Operation on the System. When a user gives his Command for Performing Any Operation, then the Request Will goes to the Shell Parts, The Shell Parts is also called as the Interpreter which translate the Human Program into the Machine Language and then the Request will be transferred to the Kernel. So that Shell is just called as the interpreter of the Commands which Converts the Request of the User into the Machine Language. 

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Disk Scheduling: As we know that on a single Computer we can Perform Many Operations at a Time so that Management is also necessary on all the Running Processes those are running on the System at a Time. With the help or Advent of the Multi-programming we can Execute Many Programs at a Time. So fir Controlling and providing the Memory to all the Processes Operating System uses the Concept of Disk Scheduling.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

To avoid the problems of early systems the batch processing systems were introduced. The problem of early systems was more setup time. So the problem of more set up time was reduced by processing the jobs in batches, known as batch processing system. In this approach similar jobs were submitted to the CPU for processing and were run together.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Process Control block is used for storing the collection of information about the Processes and this is also called as the Data Structure which Stores the information about the process. The information of the Process is used by the CPU at the Run time. The various information which is Stored into the PCB as followings:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Multi programming: Multiprogramming is the technique of running several programs at a time using timesharing. It allows a computer to do several things at the same time. Multiprogramming creates logical parallelism. The concept of multiprogramming is that the operating system keeps several jobs in memory simultaneously.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

A process which is Executed by the Process have various States, the State of the Process is also called as the Status of the process, The Status includes whether the Process has Executed or Whether the process is Waiting for Some input and output from the user and whether the Process is Waiting for the CPU to Run the Program after the Completion of the Process.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

A Single Process may also contain sub Processes those are also known as the Child Process. So that we can say that a Process which is given to the System is also known as the Parent Process and all the other Parts of the Single Process are known as the Child Process. So that Every Process may also Contains Some Child process.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Real Time System : There is also a Operating System which is known as Real Time Processing System. In this Response Time is already fixed. Means time to Display the Results after Possessing has fixed by the Processor or CPU.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

DOS commands are small programs, which are made to perform a particular job. Every DOS command performs different task. It is not possible to work on the computer without these commands. There are two types of DOS command.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

The Demand Paging is also same with the Simple Paging. But the Main Difference is that in the Demand Paging Swapping is used. Means all the Pages will be in and out from the Memory when they are required. When we specify a Process for the Execution then the Processes is stored firstly on the Secondary Memory which is also known as the Hard Disk.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Definition: Virtual memory is the feature of an operating system (OS). It is responsible for memory management.In the Virtual Memory the Physical Memory (Hard Disk) will be treated as the Logical Memory (random access memory (RAM)). Means with the help of virtual Memory we can also temporarily increase the size of Logical Memory as from the Physical Memory. A user will see or feels that all the Programs are running into the Logical Memory of the Computer. With the help of virtual Memory all the Space of Hard Disk can be used as the Logical Memory So that a user can execute any Number of programs.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

For improving the performance of the system we use the concept of swapping. In the swapping the processes those are on waiting state and those are on suspend or temporary suspend will be stored from out side the memory locations so that the speed of process will be high.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Spooling - simultaneous peripheral operations on-line, spooling refers to as a process that putting jobs in a buffer or say spool, or temporary storage area, a special area in memory or on a disk where a device can access them when it is ready. Spooling is useful because devices access data at different rates.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

The real-time operating system used for a real-time application means for those applications where data processing should be done in the fixed and small quantum of time. It is different from general purpose computer where time concept is not considered as much crucial as in Real-Time Operating System. RTOS is a time-sharing system based on clock interrupts. Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) serve the interrupt, raised by the system. RTOS used Priority to execute the process. When a high priority process enters in system low priority process preempted to serve higher priority process. Real-time operating system synchronized the process. So that they can communicate with each other. Resources can be used efficiently without wastage of time.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Parallel Processing Systems are designed to speed up the execution of programs by dividing the program into multiple fragments and processing these fragments simultaneously. Such systems are multiprocessor systems also known as tightly coupled systems. Parallel systems deal with the simultaneous use of multiple computer resources that can include a single computer with multiple processors, a number of computers connected by a network to form a parallel processing cluster or a combination of both.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Following are the services provided by an operating system for the convenience of users:

  1. Program Execution

The purpose of computer system is to allow the users to execute programs in an efficient manner. The operating system provides an environment where the user can conveniently run these programs. The user does not have to worry about the memory allocation or de-allocation or any other thing because these things are taken care of by the operating system.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

As we know that for performing any Operation as user must have to specify the Operation which he wants to Operate on the Computer. We can say that For Performing any Operation a user must have to Request for a Service from the System. For Making any Request a user will prepare a Special call which is also known as the System Call.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

In earlier days, Computers was programmed to solve the problem. More prior day’s computer could perform only one job at a time. This computation resulted least CPU utilization. Most of time CPU was idle. To use CPU more efficiently, computer crossed many stages of evaluation.

In 1950 first operating system known as the batch operating system was introduced. Batch Operating System could execute a group of jobs in the form of a single deck of punched card.



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.



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