by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Personal Computer Definition: The first general-purpose, cost-effective personal computer created by IBM was called the IBM PC or means "personal computer" . It is a microprocessor technology that has been any small, relatively inexpensive computer designed to be used by one person, at home or in an office. It is often simply called a Personal Computer (PC).  The example of Personal Computer or PC are microcomputer, desktop computer, laptop computer, tablet. In all these computer manufacturers to put an entire CPU on one chip.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

A Laptop computer (also called portable computerornotebook computerin English) (Other terms, such as ultrabook or netbook, refer to specific types of laptop) is designed with portability in mind. It was developed in the late 1980s. It is briefcase style with a foldout screen with a clamshell form factor, suitable for mobile use and with a miniature keyboard. It is small enough to use in your lap. The laptop is battery or AC-powered personal computer that should be charged via a plug and socket, and when it runs out of power, it must be recharged regularly.    



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Definition: Semiconductors are widely used in electronics to make components such as diodes, transistors, thrusters, integrated circuits as well as semiconductor lasers. A ‘semiconductor’ is a material whose properties lie between conductors and insulators. The resistance in semiconductor decreases as there is an increase in temperature because as the temperature is increased, the electrons present in the valence band get excited and jumps into the conduction band, which increases the conductance and hence, resistance decreases.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

    The Processor Cache is memory that store data (code, commands etc.). it is used with the processor to facilitate the access of data from the system's main memory or RAM. Processor Cache reduces the average time to access memory. The processor cache typically consists of two levels, which are the L1 cache and the L2 cache.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

The successful general purpose mechanical computers were developed. In 1930, mechanical calculations were built for automatic addition, subtraction, multiplication & division. A calculator is not a programmable device. The different eras of the Evolution of Digital Computers are listed below:

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

What is CPU: It's meaning is Central Processing Unit.  Sometimes referred to simply as the central processor or Nerve Centre or heart, but more commonly called processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. The CPU is the brains of the computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Education : Getting the right kind of information is a major challenge as is getting information to make sense. College students spend an average of 5-6 hours a week on the internet.Research shows that computers can significantly enhance performance in learning. Students exposed to the internet say they think the web has helped them improve the quality of their academic research and of their written work. One revolution in education is the advent of distance learning. This offers a variety of internet and video-based online courses.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Basic characteristics about computer are:

1. Speed: - As you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that we take hours to complete. You will be surprised to know that computer can perform millions (1,000,000) of instructions and even more per second.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Von Neumann Architecture also known as the Von Neumann model, the computer consisted of a CPU, memory and I/O devices. The program is stored in the memory. The CPU fetches an instruction from the memory at a time and executes it.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Computers differ based on their data processing abilities. They are classified according to purpose, data handling and functionality.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

A computer can process data, pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly complicated problems quickly and accurately. A computer as shown in Fig.  performs basically five major computer operations or functions irrespective of their size and make. These are



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

What is Computer : Computer is an electronic device that is designed to work with Information. The term computer is derived from the Latin termcomputare’, this means to calculate or programmable machine. Computer can not do anything without a Program. It represents the decimal numbers through a string of binary digits. The Word 'Computer' usually refers to the Center Processor Unit plus Internal memory.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

  BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) Short for ROM is boot firmware program that a computer uses to successfully start operating. The BIOS is located on a chip inside of the computer and is designed in a way that protects it from disk failure.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

 DMA stands for "Direct Memory Access" and is a method of transferring data from the computer's RAM to another part of the computer without processing it using the CPU. While most data that is input or output from your computer is processed by the CPU, some data does not require processing, or can be processed by another device.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Extended Industry Standard Architecture (in practice almost always shortened to EISA and frequently pronounced "eee-suh") that extends the ISA standard to a 32-bit interface. It was developed in part as an open alternative to the proprietary "Micro Channel Architecture (MCA)" that IBM introduced in its PS/2 computers. It is a bus standard for IBM compatible computers. It was announced in late 1988 by PC clone vendors as a counter to IBM's use of its proprietary Microchannel Architecture (MCA) in its PS/2 series.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

   The Industry Standard Architecture or ISA (Pronounced as separate letters or as eye-sa) bus began as part of IBM's revolutionary PC/XT and PC/AT released in 1981. However, it was officially recognized as "ISA" in 1987 when the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) formally documented standards governing its 16-bit implementation. AT version of the bus is called the AT bus and became a de facto industry standard.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

The terms Micro Channel, Micro Channel architecture, or just MCA, all refer to the same thing: a kind of expansion bus used in PCs. MCA was a distinct break from previous bus architectures such as Industry Standard Architecture. The pin connections in MCA are smaller than other bus interfaces. For this and other reasons, MCA does not support other bus architectures. Although MCA offers a number of improvements over other bus architectures, its proprietary, nonstandard aspects did not encourage other manufacturers to adopt it.

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.



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