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by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

ANSI is the acronym for the American National Standards Institute. This institute creates standards for a wide variety of industries, including computer programming languages. ANSI standards currently exist for vast numbers of such seemingly unrelated items as refrigerators, industrial carpet, mayonnaise, and computer parts, among others.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

COMMAND.COM is the program that serves as the DOS command processor, or the DOS shell if you prefer. Like any operating system, DOS itself is simply software, albeit software that has a very special role in running your computer. Dos consists of a conglomeration of programs, utilities, and device drivers, but at its core are three key pieces of software. They must be present on the disk you use to start your computer, or the computer won't work. Of these three pieces of software, the only one you're likely to run across is COMMAND.COM-you'll see it in the list of files on your screen when you display the directory of that start-up disk, by typing DIR and pressing Enter. (The other two essential DOS files are hidden files, so you won't see them in the directory list.)



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

These spoonfuls of alphabet-number soup designate different standards for connecting serial devices (like modems, mice, and printers) to the computer by plugging their cables into serial ports. Through a serial port, the computer exchanges information with the device back and forth "serially," or one bit at a time.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Application Program

Application Program: Applications programs are programs written to solve specific problems, to produce specific reports, or to update specific files. A computer program that performs useful work on behalf of the user of the computer (for example a word processing or accounting program) as opposed to the SYSTEM SOFTWARE which manages the running of the computer itself, or to the DEVELOPMEN software which is used by programmers to create other programs.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

(Multiple-instruction multiple-data) A generic description that can be applied to any MULTIPROCESSOR computer architecture in which each processor is able to execute a different program, as distinct from a SIMD architecture in which each processor executes the same program on a different data item. With MIMD architecture, the deployment of the program code onto the different processors and the interconnection TOPOLOGY of the processors become visible to the programmer, and complicate the writing of programs.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

A trackball is an alternative to a mouse or a stylus. It looks kind of like a mouse upside-down, and you use it by rolling the ball around with your fingers. It has one or more buttons to click, just like a mouse.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Clock speed refers to how fast the system clock drives the computer's CPU (central processing unit, the chip that runs the computer) which determines how fast the system as a whole can process information internally. Clock speed is measured in megahertz; a speed of one megahertz (l MHZ) means the system clock is sending out its electric current one million times per second. The higher the clock speed of a computer, the faster the computer can operate, assuming all other factors are equal. However, clock speed isn't the only factor that determines your computer's overall performance, or even how fast the microprocessor (another term for the cpu) gets things done. Two different microprocessors may run at the same clock speed, and still take different amounts of time to finish a given job.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Dos use the acronym LPT to refer to its three printer ports: LPT1, LPT2, and LPT3. The acronym is a contraction of line printer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

File Allocation Table (FAT). A data structure employed in the FILESYSTEMS of Microsoft's MS-DOS and Windows operating systems to locate individual files stored on hard and floppy disks. When a disk is FORMATTED it is divided up into many physical SECTORS of equal size grouped together into CLUSTERS. Whenever a new file is created, the file system allocates a number of these clusters to hold that file's data - the FAT is a table that contains the name of each file and the addresses of the clusters that it occupies. When a file is deleted, only its FAT entry, rather than the data itself, is erased, which is why UNDELETE utilities can usually recover the file.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

SIMM stands for single inline memory module. Before you try to understand what a SIMM is, you should read and understand RAM and memory.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

ANSI.SYS (pronounced "ansee dot sis") is a driver file a little software module, or controller used by MSDOS and OS/2, ANSI.SYS tells the computer how to display information based on the standard codes adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Each code in the ANSI table represents either a character (like the letter S) or a number (such as the number 5), and other keys found on the keyboard (such as the Enter key). Some codes in the table are not found on the keyboard, but programs use them for specific purposes (such as making the PC beep, or moving the cursor to the next line on-screen).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

There are several varieties of computer programs, but the ones most of us are familiar with are the application software. An application is software with a specific use, such as writing, dealing with numbers, organizing large amounts of data, etc. Popular types of applications software include word processors, database managers, spreadsheets, graphics applications, money managers, and games. Other types of computer software include utilities (programs designed to tune the performance of the computer), and system software (basic programs, such as DOS , windows ,UNIX , Linux , MAC which are required to operate the PC).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

If there is too much static electricity hanging around, it can actually disrupt your computer, causing the screen to freeze or creating various other unpleasant disturbances that can destroy data. Static can even destroy the circuits inside your computer. Extra static can develop from the weather or from certain kinds of clothing or from activities like petting your cat while working on your computer, shuffling around on the carpet, or rubbing a balloon on your head. So a variety of antistatic devices have been developed to help prevent this, devices such as wrist bands, floor mats, sprays, and little metal pads that say "Touch Me."



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow between two points in a certain period of time. The "broader" the bandwidth, the faster the information flow. You can use the term to describe how quickly information moves from the hard disk into memory, or from the computer to an add-in board on the expansion bus, or from one modem to another across a telephone line. Depending on whether the transmission is digital or analog, the rate is measured in bits per second (bps) or in hertz (cycles per second).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

CD-ROM (pronounced "see-dee rom") stands for compact disk, read only memory. A NON-VOLATILE OPTICAL DISK STORAGE medium based on the same physical disk format as the audio Compact Disc (CD), developed by Philips and Sony. A CD-ROM actually looks just like the CDs we play music with. To use one with your computer, you need a CD-ROM player, also called a CD-ROM reader. A CD-ROM can hold up to about 600 megabytes of information, which is the equivalent of about 700 regular floppy disks. There are CD-ROMs that hold the entire works of Shakespeare, complete dictionaries, histories, images of the works in the Louvre, etc., etc., ete. You can search the CD for the particular information you want to work with, copy it, then paste it into your own documents on your hard disk to do with what you will. You can only read from a CD-ROM, though-you can't store information onto it. The biggest complaint about CD-ROMs is that they are relatively slow.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Before a disk can be useful in a computer, the disk must be formatted. Formatting, also called initializing, organizes the storage area on the disk-it magnetically marks the disk with tracks and sectors, each with indicated boundaries, so that the information you store can later be located easily. The process involves erasing all that is on the disk, testing the disk to make sure all of its sectors are reliable, and creating a directory-an internal address system used for locating information later.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

The B word. If something is wrong with a piece of software or hardware so that it stops working or destroys your data or just acts weird, the product is said to have a bug, or to be buggy. The term actually comes down to us from the real live crawling and flying bugs that used to get into those old giant-sized computers .

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Analog is the opposite of digital, and I can only explain analog in relation to digital. Analog refers to things that are in a continuous flow or that have an infinite number of values-things that are "analogous" to real life.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Automated Teller Machine (ATM) Also called a CASH POINT, a combined computer terminal and cash dispensing machine connected via a WAN to a bank's central computers, that enables customers to make cash withdrawals and inspect account details from public sites such as streets, airports, shops and petrol stations. ATMs typically provide a small display screen that presents menus to the user, surrounded by a small number of buttons to make menu selections, and a numeric keypad for entering the customer's PIN number - the latter is checked against that stored on the customer's cash card, which must be inserted into a slot as a means of AUTHENTICATION.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

CD-R (Compact Disc Recordable) AWRITE-ONCE version of the CD-ROM disc, which can be used to distribute and back up computer data or to copy music CDS. Though it follows the same data format and can be read in standard CDROM drives, CD-R employs quite a different physical storage process, based on an organic dye film that is selectively bleached by a laser beam, which explains the blue or green colour of the recording surface.



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.



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