by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

In a computer database, the database engine is the software that does the real work of sorting the information, finding specific data that you request, and so on. The term used to refer to a separate piece of software that ran on a central computer (in this case, it is more or less synonymous with the term "back-end"). Widely used database engines include Oracle, DB2, and Sybase. Separate front-end software running on your own computer lets you tell the database engine what to do (how to sort the data, what data to find), and displays the results of your commands.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

Relation Algebra is a procedural query language for RDBMS (Relational Database Management System). An Algebra based on the set of operators (like Arithmetic operator, union, intersection relational operator, etc.) and operand. Edgar F. Codd created it for a relational database. Relational Algebra provides a fundamental query for retrieving data from databases. The retrieved result from algebra expression is a relation which formed from one or more relations. Relational Algebra specifies many operations to manipulate relations.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

The database is the location to store the data. Firstly we used excel sheet to store the data. However, it has some problem with data integrity and redundancy problem. This problem solved by E.F. Codd proposed a model in 1970. This model was straightforward. It used the concept of mathematical relation which looks like a table.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

The database is a repository of all types of data. After storing it, there should be a mechanism to access, manipulate and update it. For this, we have a tool in the form of a query to perform all these operations. There are many query language like SQL, Search Engine Query Language (Google, Bing), DMX (Data Mining Language), etc. All these languages have different function and their function structure used for the different data model.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

The database schema is a structure or architecture to store data in the database. It creates abstraction(hide the lowest level the detail from the user) between application and physical database. A user creates a relationship with the help of Database Management System.But a user can’t see which type of data structure is used by the system to store the data in it.This data structure may be linear and may be non-linear, we don’t know. This is known as Abstraction. The database divided into three-level architecture is also known as three; schema architecture.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

Data base management system (DBMS) represent the management of data which includes various processes like collection of related data , storing and retrieving them, using set of programs for easy and effective manner.   While it may sound quit simple and easy but in reality it is not. As the bulk of data increases with the complexity of systems and multiple process running head to head it leads to most feared complication called Deadlock. It is nightmare for the developers and programmers. We will be discussing in detail everything about this evil Deadlock in our following article below. Starting with the definition first.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Processor decides the speed of the computer that it will execute the instruction fast or it will process slow. When a user thinks about to purchase a system the first question is in mind is processor. The first commercial microprocessor was the Intel 4004 launched in 1971, which was designed to be used in a Japanese desk calculator.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

A scanner is a device that takes a picture of an image that exists outside the computer, such as a photograph or a drawing on paper. As the scanner takes the picture, it digitizes the image (breaks it up into dots that can be recreated on the computer screen with electronic signals), and send this digital information to the computer as a file. Then you can take this file of the scanned image and use it in your work.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Bootstrap: To start a computer by loading its OPERATING SYSTEM from disk storage into memory. The name alludes to the seeming absurdity of trying to lift oneself off the floor by pulling on one's own bootstraps - since it is the operating system that enables a computer to read disks, then loading itself from disk would seem to be a similar impossibility. This paradox is resolved by the presence of a small program called the BOOTSTRAP LOADER, which resides permanently in the computer (stored in a ROM chip) and contains just sufficient code to read the rest of the operating system from disk. This process is informally called 'booting' or 'booting up' the computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Seek Time refers to how long it takes the read/ write head on a hard disk to move from one track to another. Technically, seek time is only one factor affecting "average" access time, and is not the same as access time. Because it sounds faster, certain disk vendors may try to woo you by quoting seek time specifications for their disks, but you should really base your comparisons on average access time.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Device independent components work right no matter what model of device you use them with. For example, if the graphic file format in your publication is device independent, the results you see on paper will look about the same whether you print to an HP DeskJet, an Apple LaserWriter, or a high-resolution Linotronic image setter (the graphic will be printed at whatever resolution the printer uses).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

An EGA is a video adapter for IBM-type personal computers. This means it has the electronic circuits your computer needs to display images on the screen. EGA stands for enhanced graphics adapter, but don't be fooled by the name: EGAS came out in about 1985, and what was "enhanced" then (compared to a CGA) is obsolete now. Yes, they still work, and if you get a computer that has one, don't throw the EGA board away.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

A plotter is a graphics printer that literally uses ink pens to draw the images. The pens move around on the surface of the paper like something out of The Sorcerer's Apprentice. Plotters can only draw data in vector graphics format, graphics that are made of straight lines (the curved forms are actually drawn with many tiny straight lines). There are flatbed plotters where the pen moves across the page in the x and y axes.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Artificial intelligence (AI) A branch of computer science that was pursued with great optimism in the 1960s and 70S, in an attempt to make computers think more like human beings. It analyzes data and draw conclusions in a way that makes them appear to be "intelligent." Now of course, computers can't think or do anything without being told what to do. So AI programs use complex formulas which attempt to arrive at an answer in a method similar to how a human might do it.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Machine language is generally referred to as first-generation language, assembly language is known as second-generation language, and high-level languages such as C, C++, Java, etc., are called third-generation languages.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

SCSI (pronounced "scuzzy," not "sexy") stands for small computer systems interface. SCSI is a standard for interfacing, or connecting, personal computers to peripheral devices (like scanners, hard disks, or CD-ROM players) and having them send information to each other.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

ANSI is the acronym for the American National Standards Institute. This institute creates standards for a wide variety of industries, including computer programming languages. ANSI standards currently exist for vast numbers of such seemingly unrelated items as refrigerators, industrial carpet, mayonnaise, and computer parts, among others.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

COMMAND.COM is the program that serves as the DOS command processor, or the DOS shell if you prefer. Like any operating system, DOS itself is simply software, albeit software that has a very special role in running your computer. Dos consists of a conglomeration of programs, utilities, and device drivers, but at its core are three key pieces of software. They must be present on the disk you use to start your computer, or the computer won't work. Of these three pieces of software, the only one you're likely to run across is COMMAND.COM-you'll see it in the list of files on your screen when you display the directory of that start-up disk, by typing DIR and pressing Enter. (The other two essential DOS files are hidden files, so you won't see them in the directory list.)



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

These spoonfuls of alphabet-number soup designate different standards for connecting serial devices (like modems, mice, and printers) to the computer by plugging their cables into serial ports. Through a serial port, the computer exchanges information with the device back and forth "serially," or one bit at a time.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Application Program

Application Program: Applications programs are programs written to solve specific problems, to produce specific reports, or to update specific files. A computer program that performs useful work on behalf of the user of the computer (for example a word processing or accounting program) as opposed to the SYSTEM SOFTWARE which manages the running of the computer itself, or to the DEVELOPMEN software which is used by programmers to create other programs.



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.