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by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

During the period from the early 1960s to the early 1970s, electronic analog computers were increasingly combined with a digital computer in hybrid systems. The idea was to combine the easy programmability of a general purpose digital computer with the ability of a large electronic analog computer to solve substantial, complex problems, notably large sets of nonlinear differential equations, or to simulate challenging spaceflights and "person-in-the-Loop" situations in real time.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Supercomputers are the biggest, fastest, and most expensive computers on earth. The cheapest supercomputer costs well over $1 million. They're used for scientific simulations and research such as weather forecasting, meteorology, nuclear energy research, physics and chemistry, as well as for extremely complex animated graphics.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

The term mainframe has shifted from its original reference to the main housing, or frame, that contained the central processing unit (CPU) of the computer. In those days, all computers were big-like the size of a garage-and the frame for the CPU might have been as big as a walk-in closet. Now mainframe refers to the kind of large computer that runs an entire corporation.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

ENIAC is an acronym for electronic numerical integrator and calculator. The ENIAC, assembled in 1946, was the first operational digital computer. This monster occupied 1,800 square feet, used 18,000 vacuum tubes, and performed simple addition calculations at a rate of 5,000 per second (very, very slow by today's standards).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

A batch file is a file containing a series of commands that the operating system will carry out for you, one at a time. A batch file is a collection of DOS commands. MS-DOS batch files consist of the normal operating system commands (e.g. DIR, DEL, COPY and MKDIR) together with some extra commands such as IF, FOR, GOTO, SHIFT and PAUSE that provide conditional control of execution and enable PARAMETERS to be passed so that the same batch file can be used in many different contexts. Under UNIX, batch files are called SHELL SCRIPTS, and are written in a c-like scripting language.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Bus Contention: A loss of performance that can arise when two or more devices – for example computer PROCESSORS or disk controllers - try to transfer data simultaneously over the same BUS. For example hesitation may be introduced into a video or audio playback whenever the disk is being accessed. Contention is ameliorated by some kind of ARBITRATION scheme that regulates bus usage in a fair and orderly way, ensuring that all the contending devices are granted access for a reasonable duration and within a reasonable time ..It can be avoided altogether by changing the hardware architecture so as to provide separate buses for each device.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

A minicomputer isn't very mini. At least, not in the way most of us think of mini. You know how big your personal computer is and its related family. A workstation is the next step up in size, performance, and price, and is similar to a personal computer in that it is used by one individual.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

A coprocessor is a chip that works side-by-side with the computer's main processor (the chip called the central processing unit, or CPU). The coprocessor handles some of the more specialized tasks, such as doing math calculations or displaying graphics on the screen, thereby taking some of the work load off the main processor so it can go on with the business of directing and keeping order over the whole show. A coprocessor is installed to reduce the burden on a computer's CPU and thus free it for more general duties such as transferring data and handling multiple tasks. 



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

The name of this batch file comes from a combination of the words automatically executed batch file. Like other batch files, AUTOEXEC.BAT contains a series of DOS commands that your (IBM-compatible) PC runs for you, one after the other, so that you don't have to type the commands individually. It gives the computer various basic instructions about starting Windows, running antivirus checks in the background, identifying the keyboard, and so on.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Access time refers to how fast the disk or memory can locate and begin retrieving (accessing) a specific piece of information or transfer data to the CPU. A low access time indicates a fast hard drive. Access time is measured in milliseconds, or ms. when making comparisons, look for 'memory access time' (measured in nanoseconds), Memory access time refers to the time it takes to transfer a character from memory to or from the processor, and/or 'disk access time' (measured in milliseconds) refers to the time it takes to place the read / write heads over the requested data. Sometimes the speed of a disk drive is measured by the rate at which it transfers data - in this case, a higher' data transfer rate' indicates a faster drive. For a disk drive the access time includes both the head SEEK TIME and the LATENCY.



 

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