by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Organizations use several types of information systems to suit their needs. The various types of information systems that an organization uses may be classified into the following categories:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

A modern manager is a person who does the most important task within an organization taking decisions. However, we can categorize his tasks among the categories of staffing, planning, controlling, organizing and leading. We would have to say that different managers at different levels spend different amounts of time and effort in each of these categories of activities.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

The common thread of activity in all the management functions is information management. Every manager today has to manage loads of information some for the purpose of reporting and some for taking actionable decisions. A marketing manager trying to fine-tune a sales strategy would be doing it only after analyzing a lot of relevant information about the market, the customer profile, the product profile and competitor's pricing strategy.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

In order to understand the importance of MIS one must understand and appreciate the role that MIS plays in an organization. An organization may be conceived in a lot of ways. One can visualize an organization as a balance sheet or a function of financial statements, i.e., as a financial entity or as an organization chart delineating the decision-making hierarchy levels and formal communication channels. While both views are correct, the latter view is more appropriate for understanding an organization's MIS.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Information systems cannot deliver value from the first day in an organization. The organization needs time and maturity to be able to leverage the information system. Various organizations are at different levels of maturity in dealing with information systems. Nolan has provided a model for such information systems using maturity in organizations. However, empirical evidence is not available in favor of such models but intuitively, it seems correct. To leverage the benefits of information, an organization has to first appreciate the usefulness of information. This requires a change in the mindset and way of working. Organization culture needs to change to accommodate this kind of information-based working. Changing organizations takes time and hence, organizations pass through stages of maturity in dealing with information systems.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Information system is a special type of system that allows storage, retrieval and processing of data in a secure environment. Logically the major sub systems of information systems are:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Management is the often unseen force that helps bind an entire organization and helps it to achieve its objectives by conducting the activities of planning, directing, organizing and controlling. In an organization the structure of management conforms to the pattern of a pyramidal structure (in most cases) with a well-defined hierarchy.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Systems approach is widely used in problem solving in different contexts. Researchers in the field of science and technology have used it for quite some time now. Business problems can also be analyzed and solved using this approach. The following steps are required for this:

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Different types of systems exist. Some are abstract concepts while others are operational ones. Given below are different types and classes of systems:

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Control is essential for monitoring the output of systems and is exercised by means of control loops. It is necessary for monitoring the desired output of a system with the actual output so that the performance of the system can be measured and corrective action taken if required. Schoderbek, 1985 mentions four elements required for effective control:

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Systems have very specific common characteristics which help in its identification. They are:

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

A special class of systems dealing with the storage, processing and delivery of information is of special significance to business and is called information systems. When these information systems aid the management in taking decisions, they are then broadly classified as management information systems. These are special systems with unique characteristics.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

The systems approach is an old concept. The approach stands on the assumption that breaking down of a complex concept into simple easy to understand units helps in better understanding of the complexity. Ludwig von Bertalanffy first proposed the systems approach under the name of 'General System Theory'.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

For the better part of our productive life, most of us are a part of one organization or another. The organization that we are part of may be very structured, like the armed forces or corporate entities or it may be loosely structured like a neighborhood cricket team. Even though organizations may be of different types, they have some common characteristics like the existence of a common goal/mission towards which each member of the organization works for, a plan or an agenda to make the goal/mission a reality and the utilization of resources to achieve the goal.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Information and its use has become the competitive advantage of today's world. The efficiency with which a firm manages its information determines its success in the marketplace. This enormous power of information unleashed in today's world has brought down reaction times for decision-making of managers, made customers more aware, competitors more efficient and regulators more alert.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Information systems can be manual but the compulsions of competition in modern business makes information systems run on information technology platforms. Information technology is a term used to describe a set of technologies that includes technologies from the domain of computer science and engineering, networking, electronics and telecommunication and other such domains.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Information in an organization can be managed if the data that the organization generates by interacting regularly with its internal employees and external customers is managed. If the data about the transactions that the organization enters into with other entities is managed then information can also be managed to a large extent as most information is generated from the background transaction level data within the organization. Some information however, is dependent on external data that is not available within the organization.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

Every manager today has to manage loads of information; some for the purpose of reporting and some for taking actionable decisions. The competitive environment that exists in today's time makes this task of management even more challenging. Today's managers have to work in an increasingly competitive globalize environment, in which the cost of a faulty decision in quite high. Hence, they rely more and more on data driven decision-making techniques rather than 'gut feeling'. The focus is very much on gaining understanding about an issue before jumping to take a decision. MIS fills this gap.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

From a managerial context the value of information is judged on the basis of the following parameters:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information and System Concepts

The transformation process in certain sub-system, especially at the lowest level may not be defined. However, the inputs and outputs are known. Such a sub-system, whose processes are not defined, is called a black box system.

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.