by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

This feature can be used with arrays as well. A static array has the following characteristics:

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

If we desire that the elements of a vector should not be modified, we can declare that vector as a const vector. However, we must initialize this vector when it is declared, as it is not possible to modify it subsequently. Thus, a const vector can be declared and initialized as shown below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

We can pass an array (one-, two- or multidimensional) as an argument to a function. The C language allows us to define functions that have one or more arrays as parameters. These parameters can be of different types and sizes. Moreover, we can mix scalar and array parameters. A function that uses a single one-dimensional array as a parameter can be defined as shown below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

Array Declaration

Every array is given a name. The rules for naming arrays are the same as those used for variable names. As with scalar variables, an array must be declared before it is used. The declaration of a one-dimensional array takes the following form:

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

Declaration of arrays, Initialization of arrays, Multi dimensional Arrays, Elements of multi dimension arrays and Initialization of multidimensional arrays. The C language provides a capability that enables the user to define a set of ordered data items known as an array.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

Often, we have to deal with groups of objects of same type such as names of persons, instrument readings in an experiment, roll numbers of students, and so on. These groups can be conveniently represented as elements of arrays. An array is defined as a sequence of objects of the same data type. All the elements of an array are either of type int (whole numbers), or all of them are of type char, or all of them are of floating decimal point type, etc. An array cannot have a mixture of different data types as its elements. Also, array elements cannot be functions; however, they may be pointers to functions. In computer memory, array elements are stored in a sequence of adjacent memory blocks. Since all the elements of an array are of same data type, the memory blocks allocated to elements of an array are also of same size. Each element of an array occupies one block of memory. The size of memory blocks allocated depends on the data type and it is same as for different data types. 



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

Declaring Arrays : Arrays are declared with the bracket punctuators [ ], as shown in the following syntax :

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

The amount of memory an array can consume depends on the data type of an array. In DOS environment, the amount of memory an array can consume depends on the current memory model (i.e. Tiny, Small, Large, Huge, etc.).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

1) An array holds elements that have the same data type.

2) Array elements are stored in subsequent memory locations.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

Pointers and Arrays : Data objects in an array can be referenced through pointers instead of using array subscripts. The data type of such a pointer is referred to as "pointer to array of type". The array name itself behaves like a pointer, so there are several alternative methods to accessing array elements. For example :



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

Initializing Arrays : Arrays are initialized with a brace-enclosed list of constant expressions. A list of initializers for an incomplete array declaration completes the array's type and completely defines the array size.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

A major difference is: string will have static storage duration, whereas as a character array will not, unless it is explicitly specified by using the static keyword. Actually, a string is a character array with following properties :

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Array

An array is an array of anything. A string is a specific kind of an array with a well-known convention to determine its length.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Structure And Union

A complex number is also a multivalue object. It consists of two parts: real part and imaginary part. The imaginary part carries symbol i which is equal to √-1 . A complete number is written as sum of the real part and the imaginary part as shown below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Structure And Union

Since structures are multivalue, multitype data objects, they can be considered to form a useful tool in manipulation of quantities such as vectors, complex variables, etc. For this we define functions of the type struct, i.e., the return value of the function is a structure. The function may have arguments of type struct besides other arguments. Let us define a structure with three components of vector as its data members as shown below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Structure And Union

When structures are used to keep record of employees, students, and so on, we would need to sort them according to some criterion. For employees, it may be according to alphabetical order, designation, or pay.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Structure And Union

Program provides an illustration of a function with structure as one of its parameter. The function calculates and returns the magnitude of a vector which is an instance of structure defined to hold the three components of a vector as its data members. The structure is declared as below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Structure And Union

Pointers to structures may be declared as we declare pointers to any other data type. Like arrays and functions, the name of structure carries the address of the structure where the values of its various members are stored. Therefore, the pointer may be initialized by the name of structure which is a constant pointer to the structure. Program illustrates the declaration and use of pointer to a structure.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Structure And Union

We have used the declaration of nested structures on the parent structure in the same declaration. The structures may also be declared separately and included in the parent structure. The innermost structure should be declared first, then the next enveloping structure and then the next enveloping structure. The code is illustrated in Program.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Structure And Union

In this method, the declaration starts with typedef followed by key word struct. The data members of the structure are placed between a pair of curly braces after struct. The type name is placed after the closing right brace (}). This is explained in the following example:

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.