by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Internetworking started as a way to connect disparate types of computer networking technology. Computer network term is used to describe two or more computers that are linked to each other. When two or more computer LANs or WANs or computer network segments are connected using devices such as a router and configure by logical addressing scheme with a protocol such as IP, then it is called as computer internetworking.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

what is lan: It actually stands for local area network. A network is a group of computers and other devices connected together so they can pass information back and forth. The local area network (LAN) is a network which is designed to operate over a small physical area such as an office, factory or a group of buildings. LANs are very widely used in a variety of applications.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

What is router: Router is a network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI reference model device that means it can connect multiple computer networks via wired or wireless connections. Network router can receive, analyze, perform the traffic directing functions and forwards data packet from one network to its destination node. A router is a device that forwards packets between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Ethernet : IEEE 802.3 Local Area Network (LAN) Protocols : Ethernet protocols refer to the family of local-area network (LAN) technology covered by the IEEE 802.3. It is working examplc of the more general carrier sense multiple access with collision detect (CSMA/CD). In the Ethernet Computer Network standard, there are two modes of operation: half-duplex and full-duplex modes. In the half duplex mode, data are transmitted using the popular Carrier-SenseMultiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol on as hared medium.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

The transmission means, is that sending a signal from one location to another. Transmission technologies refer to the physical layer protocol such as modulation, demodulation, line coding, error control etc. The transmission technology can be categorized broadly into two types:

Broadcast networks

• Broadcast networks have a single communication channel that is shared or used by all the machines on the network. Short messages called packets sent by any machine are received by all the others.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network
  1. In the peer to peer computer network model we simply use the same Workgroup for all the computers and a unique name for each computer in a computer network.
  2. There is no master or controller or central server in this computer network and computers join hands to share files, printers and Internet access.
  3. It is practical for workgroups of a dozen or less computers making it common environments, where each PC acts as an independent workstation and maintaining its own security that stores data on its own disk but which can share it with all other PCs on the network.
  4. Software for peer-to-peer network is included with most modern desktop operating systems such as Windows and Mac OS.


 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

WAN is the acronym for, Wide Area Network and refers to a network used to connect different equipments from remote areas. This technology connects sites that are in diverse locations. Wide Area Networks (WANs) connect larger geographic area, such as New York, Canada, or the world. The geographical limit of WAN is unlimited. Dedicated transoceanic cabling or satellite uplinks may be used to connect this type of network. Hence, a WAN may be defined as a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area to connect LANs together between different cities with the help of transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies function at the lower three layers.            

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

• A Computer networking model where one or more powerful computers (servers) provide the different computer network services and all other user'of computer  network (clients) access those services to perform user's tasks is known as client/server computer networking model.
• In such networks, there exists a central controller called server. A server is a specialized computer that controls the network resources and provides services to other computers in the network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Types of Computer Networks can be classified on various properties. The Computer networks can also be classified on the basis of Computer network technology used by them. There are two types of Computer networks in this category.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

The IEEE 802.3 standard is popularly called as Ethernet. It is a bus based broadcast network with decentralized control. It can operate at 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps or above. Computers on an Ethernet can transmit whenever they want to do so. If two or more machines transmit simultaneously, then their packets collide. Then the transmitting computers just wait for an arbitrary time and retransmit their signal. There are various technologies available in the LAN market but the most popular one of them is Ethernet.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

In "frequency shift keying (FSK)", the frequency of a sinusoidal carrier is shifted between two discrete values. One of these frequencies (f1) represents a binary "1" and the other value (f0) represents a binary "0". The representation of digital data using FSK is as shown in Fig. Note that there is no change in the amplitude of the carrier.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

                   Point-to-point Connections

The point-to-point scheme provides separate communication channels for each pair of computers. When more than two computers need to communicate with one another, the number of connections grows very quickly as number of computer increases. Above figure illustrates that two computers need only one connection, three computers need three connections and four computers need six connections.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Modem word came from the combination of two words modulator and demodulator.A modem is a hardware device that enables the computers to transmit data over cable or satellite connection.A modem converts signals between modulator and demodulator vice versa. The outgoing digital signals from a computer a modem can modulates to an analog signals and in the demodulation in reverse analog signal are converts back to a digital signal.The modems can be classified according to their characteristics as below:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

 Computer System Model

The term computer networks resulted from the 'combination of two major areas, namely computers and communications.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) covers larger geographic area such as cities or districts. By interconnecting smaller networks within a large geographic area, information is easily disseminated throughout the network. Local libraries and government agencies often use a MAN to connect to citizens and private industries. It may also connect MANs together within a larger area than LAN. The geographical limit of a MAN may span a city.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

• Hybrid networks are the networks that are based on both peer-to-peer & client-server relationship.
• Hybrid networks incorporate the best features of workgroups in peer-to-peer networks with the performance, security and reliability of server-based networks.
• Hybrid networks still provide all of the centralized services of servers, but they also allow users to share and manage their own resources within the workgroup.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Broadcast: Any form of communication in which a single sender transmits messages to many receivers at once, the most familiar examples being the television and public radio systems. The opposite of broadcast is POINT-TO-POINT or narrowcast communication, between just a single transmitter and a single receiver - a telephone conversation for example. When such a multiple connection is made via a network cable as opposed to wireless, such communication is often called MULTIPOINT, as opposed to a point-to-point or UNICAST. Communication channel is shared by all the machines on the network in broadcast network.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

     Need For Computer Networks

The term network is defined as a set of computers of different types, terminals, telephones, and other communication equipments, connected by data communication links, which allow the network components to work together. The network components may be located within a small area or spread over many remote locations. In any case, data communications hold the network together.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

baud, baud rate A baud is the number of signaling elements per second sent by a communications device such as a modem, In theory, a modem with a high baud rate means fast transmission. The baud rate is therefore equal to the bit rate only if each signal element represents one bit of information.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Client Computer: A personal computer in networking that connects to the server and uses the network services to perform user's tasks is a client computer.



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.