by Dinesh Thakur Category: Memory

A computer device, such as a CD-ROM drive or printer, which is not part of the essential computer, i.e., the memory and microprocessor. Peripheral devices can be external -- such as a mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, external Zip drive or scanner -- or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive, CD-R drive or internal modem. Internal peripheral devices are often referred to as integrated peripherals. Linkage between the CPU and the users is provided by Peripheral devices.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Memory

A printer is an output device that prints characters, symbols, and perhaps graphics on paper. The printed output is generally referred to as hardcopy because it is in relatively permanent form. Softcopy refers to temporary images such as those displayed on a monitor. Printers are categorized according to whether or not the image produced is formed by physical contact of the print mechanism with the paper. Impact printers have contact; nonimpact printers do not.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Memory

Line Printers :- Line Printer can Print One Line at a Time. The line printer is a form of high speed impact printer. They can Print 300 to 3000 Lines per Minute. So that they are very fast. Large Computer system typically use Line Printer. The Line Printers are of two Types.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Memory

Hard Disk Drive Definition: It is also called HDD,"disk drive," (hard drive) or harddisk is a non-volatile. The hard disk drive is the primary storage unit of the computer. This is where your data, programs and the Windows system that is used to make your computer are physically saved in a digital form (string composed of 0s and 1s). There harddisk capacity is expressed in gigabytes (GB). More hard disk drive will have a large capacity, the more you can install programs or store documents in your computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Memory

As we know that the Main Memory Stores the data in a Temporary Manner means all the data will be loss when the Power switched off. And all the data will be loss when the power goes switched off.

So that we uses the Secondary Storage devices those are used for Storing the data in a Permanent Manner means all the Data will remain Stored whether the Power is Switched on or Switched off means the Power Will never effect on the System. For storing the data in a Permanent Manner we uses the Magnetic Storage Devices. There are also Some Advantages of Secondary Storage Devices.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Memory

DDRAM: - Short for Double Data Rate-Synchronous DRAM, a type of SDRAM that supports data transfers on both edges of each clock cycle (the rising and falling edges), effectively doubling the memory chip's data throughput. DDR-SDRAM also consumes less power, which makes it well suited to notebook computers. DDR-SDRAM is also called SDRAM II And DDRAM.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Memory

There are two types of relational integrity rules

Entity Integrity: - No attribute participating in the primary key of a base relation allowed containing any nulls. Primary key performs the unique identification function in a relational model. Thus a null primary key value within a base relation would be like saying that there was some entity that had no known identity. An entity that cannot be identified is a contradiction in terms, hence the name entity integrity.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Definition: A Scheduling Algorithm is the algorithm which tells us how much CPU time we can allocate to the processes.
These scheduling algorithms are either preemptive or non-preemptive.
Preemptive Scheduling Algorithms are those which are based on the priority of the processes. By preference, when a high priority process enters, it preempts a low priority process in between and executes the high priority process first.
Non-preemptive Scheduling Algorithms are those who can’t be preempted in between, i.e. we can not take control of CPU in between until the current process completes its execution.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Definition: System Software can be designed as the software in such a way so that it can control and work with computer hardware. It acts as an interface between the device and the end user.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Definition: Priority Scheduling is a scheduling process which is based on priority. In priority scheduling, the scheduler himself chooses the task priority, and the process which has the highest priority is processed first as compared to other processes.

Example: Shortest Job First (SJF) scheduling

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

DefinitionPreemptive Scheduling is defined as the scheduling which is done when the process changes from running state to ready state or from waiting for the state to ready state. In this, the resources are allocated to execute the process for a certain period. After this, the process is taken away in the middle and is placed in the ready queue its bursts time is left and this process will stay in ready line until it gets its turn to execute.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Definition: A Multi-user operating system is a computer operating system which allows multiple users to access the single system with one operating system on it. It is generally used on large mainframe computers.
Example: Linux, Unix, Windows 2000, Ubuntu, Mac OS etc.,
In the multi-user operating system, different users connected at different terminals and we can access, these users through the network as shown in the diagram.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Definition: Memory segmentation is the process in which we divide the primary memory of the computer into segments. It is a memory management technique. Each segment can be allocated to a process.
The segment table is the table which stores all the details about the segments which are further stored in one of the segments. Segment table contains two information about the segment: one is, the base address of the segment and other is, the length of the segment.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

The operating system provides set functions to create, synchronize, control, execute the processes on the system. In the earlier time when the operating system was not available then every program required full hardware access or time for execution. To overcome this problem and used the CPU efficiently, the operating system introduced.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

The software is a kind of programs that enable a user to perform some specific task or used to operate a computer. It directs all the peripheral devices on a computer system - what to do and how to perform work. Without Software, we can’t operate hardware and perform any calculations. A computer system can be divided into three components: the hardware, the software and the users. The software can be further divided into mainly two parts: Application software and System Software. Bare use of hardware is not easy, so to make it easy software is created.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Today Operating System can run multiple processes. But we know that only one process can be executed at the same time. Then to arrange and control the numerous processes in the system and utilize the CPU efficiently, some scheduling algorithm used by CPU.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Definition: The operating system provides us a graphic interface to give the command to the computer system. But system can’t understand these commands directly. Translation of code into binary language done by the core component of an operating system (OS), i.e., KERNEL. User deal with the lowest layer of kernel and then kernel deal with system.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

What is Software: Computer software, or simply software, is a kind of programs that enable a user to perform some specific task or used to operate a computer. It directs all the peripheral devices on computer system - what to do and how to perform a task. PC Software plays a role of mediator between user and computer hardware. Without Software, a user can’t perform any task in digital computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Kernel and utilities

The operating system includes a number of routines (subroutines). the most important are the core or kernel. It is loaded into memory live at system initialization and contains many procedures needed to ensure system operation. Other routines, less critical, are called utilities.

The kernel of an operating system consists of four main parts: the manager tasks (or processes), the memory manager, and file manager IO Device Manager. It also has two auxiliary parts: charger operating system and shell.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Multitasking Systems

Most modern operating systems allow running multiple tasks both: a computer can, while executing a user program, read the data from a disk or display results on a terminal or printer. We talk about multi-tasking operating system or multi-programmed in this case.



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.