by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

A process is a collection of virtual memory space, code, data, and system resources. A thread is code that is to be serially executed within a process. A processor executes threads, not processes, so each application has at least one process, and a process always has at least one thread of execution, known as the primary thread.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

DOS commands are small programs, which are made to perform a particular job. Every DOS command performs different task. It is not possible to work on the computer without these commands. There are two types of DOS command.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Languages are used for Communication with the System. As we know that there are also Some Human Languages  like English, Punjabi and Hindi those are used for Communicating with the Other Humans. As we know that different Humans Understands different Languages.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Most computer operations involve manipulation of data stored in various memories. The smallest unit of computer memory is called a bit. When a bit is set its value is taken to be equal to 1 and when it is reset its value is taken to be 0. Thus, a bit can have one of the two values, i.e., 0 or 1. In electronics, memory circuits are called flip-flops. A flip-flop is the name given to a memory circuit which behaves in a manner similar to a switch. When a switch is set on, there is high voltage at its output and it remains on till it is reset ill which case the voltage at its output terminal becomes 0. Similarly, when a flip-flop is set its value is taken as 1 and when it is reset its value becomes 0. One flip-flop represents one bit of memory. The output state can be manipulated according to the input signal to the flip-flop. Since bits are extremely small units of memory, in computer programs we often deal with groups of bits. A group of 8 bits is called a byte.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

What is RAM (pronounced as raem), Ram full form " random access memory " and is volatile. First we'll tell you what RAM memory alternatively referred to as main memory, primary memory, or system memory, Random Access Memory (RAM) in a computer system, it is also sometimes known as read-write memory or RWM, then we'll go over how RAM works in Macintoshes and pcs. Also, there are different kinds of RAM, including VRAM, PRAM, DRAM and SRAM 



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Computer is a collection of digital electronic circuits in which the memory circuits play a major role. The input to as well as outputs from the microprocessor are all expressed in terms of voltages applied on the specified set of terminals meant for input and outputs, respectively. We may code the high value of voltage (typical value 5 V) as 1 and low value of voltage (typical value 0) as 0. Thus, an instruction to the microprocessor of the computer may be represented as a sequence of 0s and 1s (ones and zeros), such as 11001001. These ones and zeros are electronic signals that tell the computer what to do. In fact, microprocessors are designed to carry out a large number of instructions. The manufacturers supply the set of instructions and their respective codes.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

A byte is a group of eight bits. Bit, short for Binary digit,which can represent any number in the range 00000000 To 11111111 Binary, or 0 To 255 Decimal. From the early days of digital computing, it is the basic unit of information within a computer, equal to a 1 or a 0. It is used to measure both memory size (Kilobytes, Megabytes) and data transfer speed (Kilobytes per second). Eight individual electronic on/off signals, strung together to make a message that the computer can interpret. Bits are stored within the computer's microchips and are led by control the flow of electrical currents; a 1 is represented by an "on" or high voltage electrical current, and a 0 is represented by an "off" or low current. A byte is formed by combining eight bits together to store the equivalent of one character. For example, the letter A (a single byte) is made up of the eight bits 01000001.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Bit is short for Binary digit. A bit is a single digit, either a 1 or a 0, and it is the fundamental unit of information in computing, communications and physics. Binary numbers (bits) are stored within a computer's microchips by turning an electrical current "on" or "off"; a 1 is represented by an "on" or high voltage current, and a 0 is represented by an "off" or low current.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

The binary system is a method for working with numbers based on only two digits: 1 and 0 (binary is also known as "base two"). Binary numbers are the basis for computer storage. Input into the computer is changed into binary numbers that the computer can store and manipulate. A binary numbering system uses a series of 1's and 0's to represent any number. Non-numbers (such as the letter D) or characters (such as a question mark) are assigned an eight digit binary number so that they too can be represented within the computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

ASCII Stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (pronounced 'as-key').  This is a standard set of characters understood by all computers, consisting mostly of letters and numbers plus a few basic symbols such as $ and %. Which employs the 128 possible 7-bit integers to encode the 52 uppercase and lowercase letters and 10 numeric digits of the Roman alphabet, plus punctuation characters and some other symbols. The fact that almost everyone agrees on ASCII makes it relatively easy to exchange information between different programs, different operating systems, and even different computers.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Meaning of BCD – "Binary Coded Decimal", is a method that use binary digits 0 which represent “off” and 1 which represent “on”. BCD has been in use since the first UNIVAC computer. Each digit is called a bit. Four bits are called a nibble and is used to represent each decimal digit (0 through 9).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

EBCDIC(pronounced "ebb see dick") is short for extended binary coded decimal interchange code is eight bits, or one byte, wide. This is a coding system used to represent characters-letters, numerals, punctuation marks, and other symbols in computerized text. A character is represented in EBCDIC by eight bit. EBCDIC mainly used on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems. Each byte consists of two nibbles, each four bits wide. The first four bits define the class of character, while the second nibble defines the specific character inside that class.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

ASCII : ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. ASCII, pronounced "ask-ee" is the acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It's a set of characters which, unlike the characters in word processing documents, allow no special formatting like different fonts, bold, underlined or italic text. ASCII is computer code for the interchange of information between terminals.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information Technology

Personal Issues : An increase in work load and / or responsibilities can trigger job stress. Many employees feel information anxiety because other people are better than they in using computers, because they are slow in learning new technology and because of the need to continuously learn new things.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information Technology

Transaction Processing System (TPS) : Organizations perform routine, repetitive tasks. For example employees are paid at regular intervals, customers place purchase orders and are billed and expenses are monitored and compared to budgets.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information Technology

The words Data and Information may look similar and many people use these words very frequently, But both have lots of differences between them.

what is data: Data are plain facts. The word "data" is plural for "datum." When data are processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make them useful, they are called Information.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information Technology

Information technology is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. It is the capability to electronically input, process, store, output, transmit and receive data and information, including text, graphics, sound and video as well as the ability to control machines of all kinds electronically.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

Data base management system (DBMS) represent the management of data which includes various processes like collection of related data , storing and retrieving them, using set of programs for easy and effective manner.   While it may sound quit simple and easy but in reality it is not. As the bulk of data increases with the complexity of systems and multiple process running head to head it leads to most feared complication called Deadlock. It is nightmare for the developers and programmers. We will be discussing in detail everything about this evil Deadlock in our following article below. Starting with the definition first.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

The database is a repository of all types of data. After storing it, there should be a mechanism to access, manipulate and update it. For this, we have a tool in the form of a query to perform all these operations. There are many query language like SQL, Search Engine Query Language (Google, Bing), DMX (Data Mining Language), etc. All these languages have different function and their function structure used for the different data model.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

The database schema is a structure or architecture to store data in the database. It creates abstraction(hide the lowest level the detail from the user) between application and physical database. A user creates a relationship with the help of Database Management System.But a user can’t see which type of data structure is used by the system to store the data in it.This data structure may be linear and may be non-linear, we don’t know. This is known as Abstraction. The database divided into three-level architecture is also known as three; schema architecture.



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.