by Dinesh Thakur

A computer network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources such as printers and CD-ROMs, exchange files, or allow electronic communications. The computers on a computer network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Multimegabit Data Switching Service (SMDS) is not a protocol, but rather a “metropolitan area service (MAN).” In essence, it is a method of transmitting ATM cells (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) through a shared bus. First used in 1992, it obtained its support when the Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOC) and other local communication service providers (LEC) began to feel competitive pressure from long-distance communication companies (IXC) in local markets and considered that the best defense against competition was a high-speed data transmission system. SMDS, thanks to its relatively low cost and high-speed data switching service, seemed the perfect solution and many of the LECs in large metropolitan areas began offering the service.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Bus Topology is multipoint electrical circuits that can be implemented using coaxial cable, UTP, or STP. Data transmission is bidirectional, with the attached devices transmitting in both directions. While generally operating at a raw data rate of 10 Mbps, actual throughput is much less.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In today's modern telecommunications, the need to expand networks is rapidly growing. While a LAN can cover most communication and resource sharing needs within a campus or company, WAN connectivity allows users and organizations to take more significant advantage of services such as the Internet, e-commerce, and videoconferencing.

WAN is the acronym for, Wide Area Network and refers to a network used to connect different equipments from remote areas. Typically a WAN consists of a series of switching devices interconnected. A WAN is also a remote access network that connects "sites" across a large geographic area. Wide Area Networks (WANs) connect larger geographic area, such as New York, Canada, or the world. The geographical limit of WAN is unlimited. Dedicated transoceanic cabling or satellite uplinks may be used to connect this type of network. Hence, a WAN may be defined as a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area to connect LANs together between different cities with the help of transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies function at the lower three layers.            

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In computer networking, Switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub,and more correctly called a network switch) and Bridges are the Layer 2 interconnect devices that can be used to preserve bandwidth in the network by applying a segmentation strategy. Switches are used to re-send packets to a specific segment of the network using hardware MAC addressing (same as bridges). Since the switches are hardware-based, they can send packets faster than bridges.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The term Network Topology defines the geographic Physical or logical arrangement of computer networking devices . The term Topology refers to the way in which the various nodes or computers of a network are linked together. It describes the actual layout of the computer network hardware. Two or more devices connect to a link; two or more links form a topology. Topology determines the data paths that may be used between any pair of devices of the network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

In general, a computer network composed of one or more servers, workstations, network interface cards, active and passive hub, routers, bridges, gateways, modem, software components like network operating systems, and other application software. The following components widely used for the construction of networks.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The MAN network (Metropolitan Area Network) is a high-speed network (broadband) that covers larger geographic area such as city (tens of kilometers) or districts than local area network (LAN) but smaller than wide area network (WAN) and providing the ability to integrate multiple services through the transmission of data, voice, and video, on transmission media such as copper, fiber optics, and microwaves.

The term is applied to the single network such as a cable television network, or it can be a way of connecting a certain number of LANs in a more extensive network so that resources can share from LAN to LAN and from device to device. For example, a company can use a MAN to connect the LANs of all its offices scattered around the city. Local libraries and government agencies often use a MAN to connect to citizens and private industries. It may also connect MANs within a larger area than LAN. The geographical limit of a MAN may span a city.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

what is lan: It is a privately-owned network and stands for local area network. A network is a group of computers and other devices connected so they can pass information back and forth. The local area network (LAN) is a network which is designed to operate over a small physical area such as an office, factory or a group of buildings up to a few kilometers in size. LANs very widely used in a variety of computers to share resources (e.g., printers) and exchange information.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A Distributed computing is a model of computation that is firmly related to Distributed Systems, refers to as multiple computer systems located at different places linked together over a network and use to solve higher level computation without having to use an expensive supercomputer. Distributed system is called, When collection of various computers seems a single coherent system to its client, then it is called distributed system.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Protocol Definition: It is a digital language through which we communicate with others on the Internet. protocol meaning is that it a set of mutually accepted and implemented rules at both ends of the communications channel for the proper exchange of information. By adopting these rules, two devices can communicate with each other and can interchange information. We can't even think of using the Internet without Protocols. Each protocol is defined in different terms and different use with unique name. Message travel from sender to reciever via a medium (The medium is the physical path over which a message travels) using a protocol.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A network is a set of computers connected through a transmission medium, to transmit and receive information from other computers in the network. You can also define a network as a set of devices (often called nodes) connected by links from a physical medium. A node can be a computer, a printer, or any other device capable of sending and receiving data generated by other nodes of the network. The links connected to the devices, often referred to as communication channels.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Signal: A signal is the variation of an electrical current or another physical magnitude that is used to transmit information. For example, in telephony, there are different signals, consisting of a continuous or intermittent tone, a characteristic frequency, which allows the user to know in which situation the call located.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Transmission is the method by which computer networks send electrical signals. Data communication is concerned with the process of exchanging data electronically between two communication devices. In a local area network, all communication functions performed through direct cables. Computers located far away are connected through a particular form of the data communication link. The existing telephone or telegraphic network may also use for connecting computers located at remote locations.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Bridges are connection devices between networks that operate in the data link layer of the OSI model. It means that bridges have more functionality (in terms of connection) than Layer 1 devices, such as repeaters and hubs. Bridges are used to segment networks that have grown to a point where data traffic through the physical environment of the network slows down the global transfer of information.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The repeaters take the signal they receive from the network devices and regenerate it to keep it intact during its transmission through the physical environment. Since all components of the physical environment of a network (copper, fiber optic cables and wireless media) have to control the attenuation that limits the possible distance between the different nodes of the network, repeaters are an excellent way to extend the net physically.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Network architecture understood as the set of layers and layer protocols that constitute the communication system.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Satellite radio, quite simply, is a non-terrestrial microwave transmission system utilizing a space relay station. Satellites have proved invaluable in extending the reach of voice, data, and video communications around the globe and into the most remote regions of the world. Exotic applications such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) would have been unthinkable without the benefit of satellites.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

We are talking of Wireless LAN (WLAN) that is to say, "Wireless LAN", not to be confused with WAN course. Also referred Radio LAN (WLAN) if the communication medium is the radio (not light infrared for example).The stations of the wireless network can communicate directly with each other, we called Ad Hoc network type, or via relay terminals called APs (Access Points, PA) then it is an infrastructure network. the second type is by far the most common in business.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Fast Ethernet is based on twisted pair and fiber-optic media systems, and provide high-speed network channels for use in the backbone systems. Fast Ethernet standard uses a particular protocol called auto-negotiation protocol that allows multi-speed Ethernet interfaces to be built. This section deals with 100BaseT.
To speed up the original Ethernet system to 100 Mbps, keeping the original CSMA/CD medium access control mechanism as it is. This approach is called 100Base-T Fast Ethernet. 100BaseT is the IEEE specification for the 100Mbps Ethernet implementation over Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling.



 

Page 1 of 9

About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.