## C – Storage Classes

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

Every variable has a type associated with it which decides the values that can be assigned to it and the operations that can be performed on it. In addition, we can specify a storage class for a variable which decides the following:

## const Parameters in C

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

Sometimes we may want that a function should not modify the value of a parameter passed to it, either directly within that function or indirectly in some other function called form it. This can be achieved using const parameters. Consider, for example, the function given below to calculate the sum of the first n integer numbers.

## C Program Function Parameter as a Loop Variable

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

We know that the C language uses the call by value mechanism to pass parameters and that a function parameter is a copy of the argument specified in the function call.

## C Program Tower of Hanoi

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

The Tower of Hanoi problem consists of three poles, left, middle, and right. One of the poles (say, the left) contains n disks of different sizes placed on each other, as shown in Fig. The objective of the problem is to transfer all the disksfrom the left pole to right pole such that only one disk can be moved at a time (to any pole) and a larger  disk cannot be placed on top of a smaller disk.

## Recursive function in C

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

We have seen that a function can be called from another function. In fact, the C language allows a function to be called from within itself. Such a function is called a recursive function.

## C Program Call By Value

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

This program defines a function named func which has two parameters, a and b of type int. Within its body, this function first prints these parameter values, initializes them to 30 and prints them again. The main function declares two variables, a and b of type int. It first prints the values of these variables and then calls the function func with variables a and b as its arguments. Finally, the main function prints the values of variables a and b again.

## C Program Calculate area and circumference of a circle using functions

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

Let us write a program to calculate the area' and circumference of a circle using user-defined functions. A function area_circum to accept the radius of a circle and print its area and circumference is given in Example. However, rather than printing the results in a function, it is good practice to return the results to the calling function, where they can be printed or used for further processing, if required. Hence, let us return the results (area and circumference) to the calling function.

## Function Declaration or Prototype in C

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

Before a function is called in a program, the system should know where to look for the function definition. In case of functions belonging to C standard library we include the relevant header files in which the function is defined. This is done above the main() function. In case of user-defined functions, a function may be defined above or below the main function, because, a function cannot be defined inside another function. If a function is defined above the main function, there is no need of a separate declaration of function. However, if the function is defined below the main function, it is a good programming practice to declare the functions being used above the main. A function declaration may be done by the function header or by its prototype.

## C Program function to return the maximum of three numbers

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

It accepts three parameters  x,y, and z, each of type double and returns a value of type double.

## return Statement in C Language

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

The return statement is used to terminate the execution of a function and transfer program control back to the calling function. In addition, it can specify a value to be returned by the function. A function may contain one or more return statements. The general format of the return statement is given below.

## C Program Function to Print a Line of a given character

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

We may often require a horizontal line of a dash, underline or some other character to be printed, particularly when printing results in a tabular format. Consider a situation in which we require a line containing a fixed number of a specific character (e.g., 65 dash characters) to be printed several times.

## User-defined Functions in C

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

C allows programmers to define their own functions. Such functions are called user defined functions. In fact, the main function that must be present in every C program is a user-defined function. A programmer may define additional functions in the following situations:

## Advantages of Functions in C

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

Recall that a function call takes the form

func_ name ( arg_list )

## Program Termination Functions

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

The exit function can be used to terminate program execution and return a specified value as program status to the calling program, usually the operating system. A zero value indicates success. An example of the exit function indicating unsuccessful termination of a program is shown below.

## Random Number Generation function

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

Random number generation is a very useful facility in many programming situations, particularly gaming and simulation. We can also use it to generate test data for programs, particularly when a large amount of data is required. This saves a lot of time on data entry.

## Converting Strings to Numbers

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

The atoi, atof and atol utility functions are used to perform string to numeric conversion. As indicated by the last letter in function names, these functions convert the argument string to an integer, floating and long number. Note that the argument string should contain a number of appropriate type as text, optionally preceded by whitespace. For example, the atof function can successfully convert strings such as" 1.23", "3.21El0", etc. The conversion stops when an inappropriate character is encountered in the input string. Thus, these functions will also be able to convert strings such as "-1. 23ABC", "3. 21E10ABc". If conversion is successful, these functions return the converted value, otherwise zero.

## How Convert Lower Case (strlwr) String to Upper case (strupr) String

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

Another commonly required string operation is that of converting the case of a given string. The C standard library does not provide any function for case conversion. However, some C implementations provide the strlwr and strupr functions. The strlwr function converts all characters in a given string to lowercase, whereas the strupr function converts all characters to uppercase. Typical calls to these functions take the following forms:

## How to use strlen () (String Length) work.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

The length of a string is defined as the number of characters in it excluding the null terminator. The strlen function returns the length of a specified string. A typical call to this function takes the following form:

## How to use strcat () (String concatenation) work.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

String concatenation is another basic string manipulation operation. In this, all the characters in a string, including the null terminator, are appended to the target string (i. e., copied at the end) replacing the null terminator in it. Thus, after the concatenation operation, the target string contains all the characters originally contained in it followed by those in the appended string. For example, if string sl contains "Pine" and string s2 contains "apple", then appending string s2 to sl modifies string sl to "Pineapple". Note that sl must have enough character positions to accommodate all the appended characters, including the null terminator.

## What is Function Prototypes?

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Function and Pointer

A standard C header file contains the declarations or prototypes of functions of a particular category. A function 'prototype usually specifies the type of value returned by that function, the function name and a list specifying parameter types as

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