by Dinesh Thakur

The creation of programs to be executed by more than one processor at the same time. Parallel programming is more difficult than ordinary SEQUENTIAL programming because of the added problem of synchronization. A sequential program has only a single FLOW OF CONTROL and runs until it stops, whereas a parallel program spawns many CONCURRENT processes and the order in which they complete affects the overall result.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Any computer program built by combining many self-contained software structures called OBJECTS, instead of writing a single long list of instructions. Objects have both properties and behaviour, which makes them powerful tools for modelling events and processes in the real world. Each object possesses its own private data describing its properties (e.g. 'size', 'colour') and also a collection of private subprograms, called METHODS (e.g. 'print', 'display', 'move') for manipulating that data. The set of methods that an object understands is called its INTERFACE, and is the only means by which one object is allowed to interact with other.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

(OOPL) A programming language specifically designed to support the writing of OBJECT-ORIENTED programs. Such languages typically support three features not found in traditional programming languages: CLASSES, ENCAPSULATION and INHERITANCE, though the actual constructs that embody these features may have different names in different languages. The first such OOPL to be invented was SIMULA, and the most widely used OOPL today is C++, which is a derivative of the C language with added object-oriented features. Other important OOPLs include JAVA, OBJECT PASCAL, EIFFEL, and the historically important SMALLTALK.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

OOP stands for object-oriented programming, a relatively recent development in programming technology. In traditional computer programs, the procedures (the programming commands) that get things done are separated from the data they work on. By contrast, object -oriented programs are put together from building blocks called objects; each of these self-contained software modules includes all the commands and data needed to do a given set of tasks when it receives the right "messages." Because it is "encapsulated" in this way, an object can be reused as a unit in as many programs as needed. By design, OOP makes it easy to generate new objects that automatically "inherit" the capabilities of existing objects. The programmer can then modify a function or two or add some new ones, but she doesn't have to start from scratch.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Application Programming Interface (API): A standardized interface via which an application program can access services provided by the operating system or other subsystems. An API is usually defined by source code in a high level programming language such as C or C++, and consists of a set of functions each of which invokes a particular service; programmers then call these functions from their own programs.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

An abstraction is a simplified description, or specification, of a system that focuses on some essential structure or behavior of a real-world or conceptual object. A good abstraction is one in which information that is significant to the user is emphasized while details that are immaterial, at least for the moment, are suppressed. We use the principles of information hiding to encapsulate these details.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

#define directive helps in creating constants which have no type information. This sets up an equivalence between an identifier and a text phrase. The syntax is #define v1 3.2



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Escape Sequences

Commonly used escape sequences are \n, \t and \a. The escape sequences are enclosed in single quotes. \n is a new line character and helps in transferring control to the next line. If more than one line is to be skipped, \n is repeated as many times as the number of lines to be skipped. \n can also be combined with any other message string to be displayed. \t is used for giving tab and \a is used for giving a beep.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

cin and cout are two predefined objects which represent standard input and output stream. The standard output stream represents the screen, while the standard input stream represents the keyboard. These objects are members of iostream class. Hence the header file <iostream.h> should be included in the beginning of all programs.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

C++ supports comment format which is indicated by a II sign before the comment. In this case, the comment can proceed only till the end of current line. In case it is required to extend the comment beyond the current line, the comments should be preceded by the II symbol on subsequent lines also.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A combination of variables, constants and operators that represents a computation forms an expression. Depending upon the type of operands involved in an expression or the result obtained after evaluating expression, there are different categories of an expression. These categories of an expression are discussed here.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A data type determines the type and the operations that can be performed on the data. C++ provides various data types and each data type is represented differently within the computer's memory. The various data types provided by C++ are built-in data types, derived data types and user-defined data types as shown in Figure.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

In C++, input and output (I/O) operators are used to take input and display output. The operator used for taking the input is known as the extraction or get from operator (>>), while the operator used for displaying the output is known as the insertion or put to operator (<<).

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Programs are a sequence of instructions or statements. These statements form the structure of a C++ program. C++ program structure is divided into various sections, namely, headers, class definition, member functions definitions and main function.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

To develop software, the object-oriented concepts need to be implemented in any high-level language. The high-level language that implements the concepts of object-oriented programming is known as an object-oriented language (also called an OO language). In general, an object-oriented language must support all or some of these OO concepts.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A C++ program can be developed from a basic structure. The general structure of C++ program with classes is as shown below (which is also called overview of a C++ program):

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A variable is an identifier that refers to the data item stored at a particular memory location. This data item can be accessed in the program simply by using the variable name. The value of a variable can be changed by assigning different values to it at various places in a program.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Constants refer to fixed values that the program may not alter. Constants can be of any of the basic data types. The way each constant is represented depends upon its type. Constants are also called literals.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Every word in C++ language is a keyword or an identifier. Keywords in C++ language cannot be used as a variable name. They are specifically used by the compiler for its own purpose and they serve as building blocks of a C++ program. C++ language has some reserve words which are called keywords of C++ language. These are the part of the C++ Tokens.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Character set is the combination of English language (Alphabets and White spaces) and math's symbols (Digits and Special symbols). Character Set means that the characters and symbols that a C++ Program can understand and accept. These are grouped to form the commands, expressions, words, c-statements and other tokens for C++ Language.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A Program is a set of Instructions and a Programmer is that who develops the program .For creating a program a programmer must use a language called as the programming language So generally a programming language is used for creating the software’s.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

As we know that the Language which is used by a Algorithms is not Specific , means there is no Language which is used by a Algorithm .

 
by Dinesh Thakur

As we know that Software is a Program. And a Program is that which Contains set of instructions, and an Instruction contains Some Tokens. So Tokens are used for Writing the Programs the various Types of Tokens those are contained by the Programs.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

There are many different types of Constants variables and Keywords in c++ Language. There are basically four types of Instructions in C++.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

We know that a computer can understand only Machine Language But the Program Written by a user is in the Form of English Language So it very necessary to convert the human Language into the Machine Language. So for this purpose we use Compiler which Converts human code into the machine code.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

We know that a Compiler compiles the whole program at a time means that it converts the whole program in single time and then gives us the errors But a interpreter is that which converts the human language into the machine language line by line and displays the errors after checking a single line.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Type Conversion is that which converts to data type into another for example converting a int into float converting a float into double The Type Conversion is that which automatically converts the one data type into another but remember we can store a large data type into the other for example we can't store a float into int because a float is greater than int.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Preprocessors are the Source of our Program those are Executed whey they are passing to Compiler and Preprocessors are always executed at the Time of Compilations. Preprocessors provide many features called Preprocessor directives and Each Preprocessor is declared with # symbol and This Directive must be written before a main program.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The typedef (meaning type definition) command allows the programmer to define a new name for a particular type.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Memory is allocated in two ways either in Static and either in Dynamic. In Static Memory Allocation the Size of Memory may be Fixed and pre-defined but the Limitation of Static Memory is that when a user Stores Large Amount of data or Large Number of Elements are Increased instead the Declarable size of Numbers So The Concept of Dynamic Memory Allocation is used When we doesn’t know about the actual size or when we doesn’t known about the Number of elements For this purpose we uses Dynamic Memory Allocation.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A Language is called as OOP  Language if a Language Provides us the Following Concepts Are Five Concepts in OOP’s:-