by Dinesh Thakur

Moving from a hard drive to an SSD is a fairly straightforward procedure that you can perform in less than an hour. Here, we’ll cover the steps you’ll need to take in order to install an SSD in a desktop PC.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

eSATA. The external SATA interface has been around longer than most of the ports we just described. Until USB 3.0 came along, this port was the fastest link to consumer storage peripherals such as external hard drives.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

HDMI. The High-Definition Multimedia Interface has been around since the early 2000s, and was developed for consumer electronics devices such as Blu-ray Disc players and HDTVs. However, HDMI has also seen wide use in graphics cards and computer displays. Its connector’s wide rectangle with two beveled corners can be adapted to DVI.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Thunderbolt. The Thunderbolt standard (formerly called Light Peak) is aimed at being able to use a single interface for multiple device connections. Thunderbolt is a 10Gbps (1.25GBps) interface that combines PCI-E (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) with DisplayPort in a single, thin cable. It can daisy-chain compatible devices, and it supports hubs, which lets you use a single cable connection to link your computer to a mouse, keyboard, monitor, and external storage drive. Even data from an external RAID (redundant array of independent drives) array of SSDs wouldn’t hit a bottleneck on its way to your computer, thanks to Thunderbolt.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

DisplayPort is a super-fast, 21.6Gbps interface designed to carry video to computer monitors. With this much bandwidth on tap, it’s able to accommodate greater resolution, faster refresh rates, and more color depth than HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface). Besides professional media content generation applications, DisplayPort (sometimes abbreviated DP) is ideal for multiple-monitor setups.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The video card, as its name indicates is the component the computer whose role is to transmit data on the screen in the control of a microprocessor dedicated and integrated into the card. It is this microprocessor that calculates the position of points on the screen and processes the texture of restitution algorithms for display complex images such as those generated by video games.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A Browser is a piece of software that everybody needs if they want to surf the Internet for useful or interesting websites. Web pages are designed to be read by Browsers and Browsers are designed to read web pages. Fortunately, acquiring a Browser is slightly easier than catching the common cold. They are everywhere. Most computers now come with one pre-installed. A great many CD-ROMs are now designed to be read like a website and so include a Browser which can be installed onto a computer's hard drive and ISPs give them away free to anyone who signs up for their service. There is nothing difficult about acquiring a Browser.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Essentially these are extra programs that can be installed and used as part of a Browser i.e. they plug into it. Typically these would provide extra facilities like the ability to handle sound files or advanced graphics. What this means in practice is that, should a web page incorporate sound as well as text, the relevant plug-in will be needed before it can be read by any Browser and the sound played through the computer's own speakers.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

In American homes, or so the story goes, when visitors arrive they are given a cookie which in Britain would be a biscuit. This philosophy has now been extended to the Internet. Whenever a visitor, better known as a Browser, arrives at certain sites a cookie is sent down the line and saves itself to the local computer's hard disk.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

As all search engines are different they all operate in slightly different ways. The good news is that the same search techniques can be applied to them all, but, as might be expected, each one is a variation around the same theme. To make it even worse not all search engines actually search the Internet, some are what is known as web directories. Then, just to confuse the picture even more some engines do keyword searches while others are concept based.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Of all these error codes by far the most common is 404 which is also one of the few that can be worked around - always assuming the website has not simply ceased to exist. Everything else can be fixed although it would help to explain the difference between web names as they appear in the press and as they appear in a Browser.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Derived from Users Network this is, again, totally separate from the WWW. Briefly, the Internet is also home to what are called news groups which are broadly divided into several categories and which cater for every topic imaginable.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

"AirDrop" is a very handy feature and easy to use for wireless file transfer between Mac, even outside the context of a home network. AirDrop arrived on the iPad and iPhone with iOS 7 and on Mac with Mac OS X Lion. Indeed not need a router or even connect to an existing Wi-Fi or Bluetooth network to use "AirDrop". There is nothing to set up, all you need is a recent Mac ("AirDrop" indeed requires a recent Mac to be activated) and communication will be made directly between Wi-Fi cards Mac (ad-hoc mode).

 
by Dinesh Thakur

To understand what defragmentation IS, a person must first understand how data files are saved onto magnetic storage disks. Whether on a floppy disk or a hard disk, data is stored in a certain format. Formatting consists of dividing a disk into organized sections so that data can be located by the computer. Formatting organizes disks into concentric rings called tracks. Tracks are divided into sectors (pie shaped wedges) in which files and parts of files are stored.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

(Multiple-instruction multiple-data) A generic description that can be applied to any MULTIPROCESSOR computer architecture in which each processor is able to execute a different program, as distinct from a SIMD architecture in which each processor executes the same program on a different data item. With MIMD architecture, the deployment of the program code onto the different processors and the interconnection TOPOLOGY of the processors become visible to the programmer, and complicate the writing of programs.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A computer integrated onto a single piece of silicon or CHIP, often referred to informally as a microchip, or the silicon chip. The microprocessor was the invention that sparked the revolution in computing and communications which began in the late 1970s. The first commercial microprocessor was the Intel 4004 launched in 1971, which was designed to be used in a Japanese desk calculator.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

(Dual In-line Memory Module) A small PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD with RAM chips mounted on both sides and a single edge connector, via which it can be plugged into a computer MOTHER BOARAD. DIMM differs from a SIMM in that the chips on either side have separate pins on the edge connector, permitting a wider 128-bit data path for faster access to the memory; hence they tend to be used in more expensive systems like servers.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A trackball is an alternative to a mouse or a stylus. It looks kind of like a mouse upside-down, and you use it by rolling the ball around with your fingers. It has one or more buttons to click, just like a mouse.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

SIMM stands for single inline memory module. Before you try to understand what a SIMM is, you should read and understand RAM and memory.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A serial port is the socket (also known as an "input/output connector") where you plug in the cables to attach to a serial device, such as a printer or modem.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A disk has two sides (a top and a bottom). Each side of the disk has tracks (concentric rings) on the surface. Each ring is divided into arc-shaped sectors, little units of storage space on the disk, usually 512 bytes on a floppy disk and up to several thousand bytes on a hard disk. Whatever the size, a sector is the smallest unit the computer can read or write at a time; it cannot deal with portions of a sector.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

SCSI (pronounced "scuzzy," not "sexy") stands for small computer systems interface. SCSI is a standard for interfacing, or connecting, personal computers to peripheral devices (like scanners, hard disks, or CD-ROM players) and having them send information to each other.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A scanner is a device that takes a picture of an image that exists outside the computer, such as a photograph or a drawing on paper. As the scanner takes the picture, it digitizes the image (breaks it up into dots that can be recreated on the computer screen with electronic signals), and send this digital information to the computer as a file. Then you can take this file of the scanned image and use it in your work.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

These spoonfuls of alphabet-number soup designate different standards for connecting serial devices (like modems, mice, and printers) to the computer by plugging their cables into serial ports. Through a serial port, the computer exchanges information with the device back and forth "serially," or one bit at a time.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A plotter is a graphics printer that literally uses ink pens to draw the images. The pens move around on the surface of the paper like something out of The Sorcerer's Apprentice. Plotters can only draw data in vector graphics format, graphics that are made of straight lines (the curved forms are actually drawn with many tiny straight lines). There are flatbed plotters where the pen moves across the page in the x and y axes.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

PCL, short for printer command language, consists of a large set of commands for controlling the Hewlett-Packard LaserJet and DeskJet families of printers, and compatible printers from other manufacturers. PCL commands are used to tell the printer where to place text or graphics on the page, which font to print, whether to print bold, italic or underlined text, and so on.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

You have probably heard of printer ports and modem ports and perhaps ADB ports or some other kind of port. A port is a plug, or receptacle (known in other computer dictionaries as an input/output connector). Once you insert one end of a cable into a port, information can flow between your computer and whatever device is attached to the other end of the cable.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A CD, such as the kind you play to listen to music, is an example of an optical disc. So is a "video disc" (properly called a laser disk), such as the kind you can rent at the video store that has an entire movie on it. Optical discs for your computer can hold an incredible amount of information- up to 6,000 megabytes (which is 6 gigabytes) of data. Entire encyclopaedias, Shakespeare's works, or representations of the art in the Louvre have been recorded onto optical discs.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Dos use the acronym LPT to refer to its three printer ports: LPT1, LPT2, and LPT3. The acronym is a contraction of line printer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A laser disc (also known as a "video disc") is similar to a music CD, but it holds visual images as well as music. In fact, laser discs can store entire movies, concerts, operas, recordings of live theatre, and a wide variety of educational material. Its signal gets fed right into your television or video monitor, just like the video tape movies you rent. Laser discs are typically 12 inches wide, just like a standard long-playing phonograph record (remember those?).

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Freeware is software made available for public use by the author, and it's free. You're not under any obligation to pay for it. Freeware is usually distributed in the same places you find shareware and public domain software: on bulletin boards, at user groups, and by commercial shareware distributors.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Before a disk can be useful in a computer, the disk must be formatted. Formatting, also called initializing, organizes the storage area on the disk-it magnetically marks the disk with tracks and sectors, each with indicated boundaries, so that the information you store can later be located easily. The process involves erasing all that is on the disk, testing the disk to make sure all of its sectors are reliable, and creating a directory-an internal address system used for locating information later.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

File Allocation Table (FAT). A data structure employed in the FILESYSTEMS of Microsoft's MS-DOS and Windows operating systems to locate individual files stored on hard and floppy disks. When a disk is FORMATTED it is divided up into many physical SECTORS of equal size grouped together into CLUSTERS. Whenever a new file is created, the file system allocates a number of these clusters to hold that file's data - the FAT is a table that contains the name of each file and the addresses of the clusters that it occupies. When a file is deleted, only its FAT entry, rather than the data itself, is erased, which is why UNDELETE utilities can usually recover the file.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

An EGA is a video adapter for IBM-type personal computers. This means it has the electronic circuits your computer needs to display images on the screen. EGA stands for enhanced graphics adapter, but don't be fooled by the name: EGAS came out in about 1985, and what was "enhanced" then (compared to a CGA) is obsolete now. Yes, they still work, and if you get a computer that has one, don't throw the EGA board away.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A driver is a piece of software that tells the computer how to communicate with or operate another piece of hardware, such as a printer, scanner, or mouse.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A drive is the part of the computer that takes the disks or tapes you insert into the slot and spins them to make them work. You probably have at least two different kinds of drives in your system: floppy disk drives are the ones with the little slots where you insert floppy disks; the standard type of hard disk drive comes sealed inside a case, which in turn is stuck inside your computer or inside a separate box-you never even see the disk.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Information that is digital is information represented by numbers (digits) or more broadly, information that can be measured in discreet, exact values. The opposite term is analog, which describes information represented along a continuous range, where there are an infinite number of possible values. Trite as it may be, the best way to understand the difference between digital and analog is to compare a digital clock to a traditional round clock with hands.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A device driver is a piece of software designed for a particular device (printer, mouse, monitor, or what have you) and the particular application program or environment you're working with. The driver serves as a go between for the program (or environment) and the device, translating the software's desires into commands the device understands.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Device independent components work right no matter what model of device you use them with. For example, if the graphic file format in your publication is device independent, the results you see on paper will look about the same whether you print to an HP DeskJet, an Apple LaserWriter, or a high-resolution Linotronic image setter (the graphic will be printed at whatever resolution the printer uses).



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A device just means any kind of component that's part of or attached to your computer. It can be located inside or outside the computer. A mouse, for example, is a device that sits outside the computer, while an internal disk drive (another device) is inside the computer. Devices need instructions on how to communicate with the printer or the rest of the computer, and sometimes those instructions aren't part of the computer's standard operating system.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Desktop publishing (DTP) is the process of creating printed documents that look professionally produced, using page layout software running on a personal computer, along with a high-quality, yet affordable, printer. To publish something with the traditional method, you would send typed or handwritten text to a typesetter, who would turn it into typeset text called "galleys," which took a couple of days. If there were corrections, it took another couple of days to get those back. If you didn't know how to layout the pages yourself, you'd take the galleys to a print shop, along with your art (illustrations and photographs).



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Desktop level is called a "level" because there is a hierarchy of different levels, kind of like different floors in a tall building. When you can actually see the Desktop, you can double-click to open folders and then you see that folder's window, right? That window is one level of the hierarchy. If you open another folder that is within that window, you go down one more level into the hierarchy. Well, the Desktop level is the very top of the hierarchy (or the root, some might say) because the first window (including the hard disk window) sits on the Desktop.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Desktop is the background on your screen when you're using a Macintosh, Microsoft Windows, and similar graphical user interfaces. The idea is that this screen background is sort of like the top of your real desk, and your program windows are all lying on the desktop in a pile. Some programs may refer to their own "desktops." In this case, the desktop is what you see on the screen when the program is running but no document is open.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A bug is a problem in software or hardware; to debug is to diagnose and correct said problem. Software programs inevitably develop bugs due to mistakes in planning or simply from accidentally typing the wrong command. Before a program can run properly, all bugs have to be found and corrected. A debugger is an application developed for the specific purpose of finding these problems; it lets the programmer run the program one step at a time so that she can see exactly where the mistake occurs.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Sometimes, like in a school computer lab or in an office, you need to hook up several computers to one printer, or several computers need to connect to one file server, or maybe you have several devices (such as a scanner and a CD-ROM player) that you need to hook into one computer. Well, the only way to connect all these devices together, since there is only one port, or connecting place, on the back of the computer, is to connect each object (each device) to the next one in line, making a daisy chain.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Cylinder The set of all the TRACKS on a HARD DISK drive with multiple PLATTERS that may be read at the same time. All the tracks are the same distance from the central spindle, so they can be imagined as tracing a cylinder in space. The HEADS on all the platters move together in a parallel motion - a sequence of data stored within the same cylinder can be read at optimum speed without requiring any movement.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

cold boot To restart (that is REBOOT) a computer from its completely powered-off state when all its memory contents have been lost, as compared with a WARM BOOT in which the RESET BUTTON is pressed without turning the power off, so that some memory contents may be retained. Certain rare error conditions may for this reason not be cleared by a warm boot, and require a full cold boot to correct.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) The most popular fabrication process for modern INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, which employs LOGIC GATES made out of complementary pairs of FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS called the P-CHANNEL and N-CHANNEL respectively. The p-channel transistor is made within a well of n-type silicon, while the n-channel is made directly in the doped silicon SUBSTRATE. These two transistors are arranged so that a current flows only momentarily while the gate is switching, and none flows in its on or off states, which enormously reduces power consumption as compared with older BIPOLAR processes. It is this benign property that permits the phenomenal improvement in chip performance over recent decades that is referred to as MOORE'S LAW.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

clock cycle The basic unit of timing within a computer system, consisting of one of the stream of regular pulses generated by the SYSTEM CLOCK. Most of a computer's components, in particular its processor, bus and memory systems, operate in strict step with the clock, so the number of clock cycles their various actions occupy is of crucial importance to a computer designer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

CD-R (Compact Disc Recordable) AWRITE-ONCE version of the CD-ROM disc, which can be used to distribute and back up computer data or to copy music CDS. Though it follows the same data format and can be read in standard CDROM drives, CD-R employs quite a different physical storage process, based on an organic dye film that is selectively bleached by a laser beam, which explains the blue or green colour of the recording surface.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A microprocessor is a single chip that is the central processing unit, or the brains of a computer. To function as a complete computer, it also needs memory, a clock) and a power supply. Well, a computer on a chip has its own built-in clock and its own memory, so all it needs is a power supply to function. These tiny things are used in all kinds of things, from car parts to children's toys.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

COMMAND.COM is the program that serves as the DOS command processor, or the DOS shell if you prefer. Like any operating system, DOS itself is simply software, albeit software that has a very special role in running your computer. Dos consists of a conglomeration of programs, utilities, and device drivers, but at its core are three key pieces of software. They must be present on the disk you use to start your computer, or the computer won't work. Of these three pieces of software, the only one you're likely to run across is COMMAND.COM-you'll see it in the list of files on your screen when you display the directory of that start-up disk, by typing DIR and pressing Enter. (The other two essential DOS files are hidden files, so you won't see them in the directory list.)



 
by Dinesh Thakur

COM1, COM2, and so on are the names of the serial ports in an IBM PC or compatible computer. You can use these names in DOS commands to configure the ports (tell them how fast to transfer data, and what method to use in doing so). In most programs that utilize a serial port, you can pick the port you're working with by name from a menu. You probably have only COM1, or just COMI and COM2.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A cluster is the smallest single unit of the space on a disk (a hard disk or a floppy or even an optical disc) that your computer's operating system keeps track of separately. The operating system keeps systematic records of which clusters are occupied by each file stored on the disk (in DOS, this is called the file allocation table, or FAT). Clusters usually consist of more than one sector, a sector being the smallest unit of disk space that the computer can read data from or write data on. There are too many sectors on a hard disk to keep track of them all individually, so the operating system deals with them in groups called clusters instead.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Clock speed refers to how fast the system clock drives the computer's CPU (central processing unit, the chip that runs the computer) which determines how fast the system as a whole can process information internally. Clock speed is measured in megahertz; a speed of one megahertz (l MHZ) means the system clock is sending out its electric current one million times per second. The higher the clock speed of a computer, the faster the computer can operate, assuming all other factors are equal. However, clock speed isn't the only factor that determines your computer's overall performance, or even how fast the microprocessor (another term for the cpu) gets things done. Two different microprocessors may run at the same clock speed, and still take different amounts of time to finish a given job.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

CD-ROM (pronounced "see-dee rom") stands for compact disk, read only memory. A NON-VOLATILE OPTICAL DISK STORAGE medium based on the same physical disk format as the audio Compact Disc (CD), developed by Philips and Sony. A CD-ROM actually looks just like the CDs we play music with. To use one with your computer, you need a CD-ROM player, also called a CD-ROM reader. A CD-ROM can hold up to about 600 megabytes of information, which is the equivalent of about 700 regular floppy disks. There are CD-ROMs that hold the entire works of Shakespeare, complete dictionaries, histories, images of the works in the Louvre, etc., etc., ete. You can search the CD for the particular information you want to work with, copy it, then paste it into your own documents on your hard disk to do with what you will. You can only read from a CD-ROM, though-you can't store information onto it. The biggest complaint about CD-ROMs is that they are relatively slow.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A card, or printed circuit board, also known as a board, is a piece of plastic with chips attached to it. Chips are the tiny little circuits that run the computer. You buy a card and stick it inside the computer box. You can get accelerator cards (boards) that make your computer run faster, video cards that give your computer more graphic capability, and clock cards and printer cards or whole computers on a card. They range in price depending on what they do, who makes them, and so on. For instance, an accelerator card can cost $300-$1500.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Bootstrap: To start a computer by loading its OPERATING SYSTEM from disk storage into memory. The name alludes to the seeming absurdity of trying to lift oneself off the floor by pulling on one's own bootstraps - since it is the operating system that enables a computer to read disks, then loading itself from disk would seem to be a similar impossibility. This paradox is resolved by the presence of a small program called the BOOTSTRAP LOADER, which resides permanently in the computer (stored in a ROM chip) and contains just sufficient code to read the rest of the operating system from disk. This process is informally called 'booting' or 'booting up' the computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Boot Sector Virus: A computer VIRUS program that hides its code within the BOOT SECTOR of a FLOPPYDISK, so that the virus code is executed before the operating system itself has loaded, making countermeasures difficult to apply. Once loaded into memory, such a virus infects the boot sectors of any other floppy disk that is placed in the drive, hence ensuring its spread.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Boot Sector The first sector on a FLOPPY DISK or HARDDISK formatted for the MS-DOS operating system, which records the number of HEADS,CYLINDERS and SECTORS per cylinder used on that disk. This information is needed by the disk controller to access data on the drive, and the boot sector is located at head 0, cylinder 0, sector 0, so the controller can always find it regardless of how the drive is formatted. Other operating systems such as UNIX also reserve a special sector for such initialization information, but it is typically in a different form, so one operating system can rarely boot from another's disk.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Boot Record: A set of crucial data written on the BOOTSECTOR of a HARDDISK or FLOPPYDISK that contains the information required by the INITIAL PROGRAM LOADER to locate a copy of the operating system on the disk and load it into memory. Damage to the boot record can prevent the computer from booting from that disk, and render the disk's other contents inaccessible; many disk repair utilities work by preserving and restoring backup copies of the boot record. Some types of VIRUS hide themselves within the boot record.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Boot Image: An exact bit-for-bit copy of a computer's OPERATING SYSTEM as it exists in memory immediately after the initial BOOT operation. Such an image may not be identical to the operating system executable file stored on disk, as it will probably have had various drivers and other configuration options applied during boot up. Boot images are sometimes stored on disk to speed up a lengthy start-up process.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Boot Drive: The disk drive of a computer system from which the operating system is loaded when the computer is first started up. Many operating systems allow the identity of this drive to be altered: for example on IBM compatible pcs it is determined by a setting in the machine's BIOS parameter area.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Biometrics: The measurement of parts of a person's body, for example fingerprints, voice timbre or unique patterns in the iris of the eye, to identify the person for security purposes. Computers can now process such data sufficiently fast for biometric methods to be used in real time as keys to gain access to a system. For example, when a finger is placed on a scanning pad, the print is immediately compared with one stored in a database of authorized persons.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Biocomputing: A generic term that describes various experimental uses of biological systems and compounds to construct computing machines: for example the use of proteins to build integrated circuits, rhodopsin pigment as a memory medium, or DNA replication as a computing mechanism. The last of these has been demonstrated experimentally by encoding text strings as synthetic DNA strands and then using the ability of DNA strands to bind to their complementary form to search for a particular string from among millions in parallel. However, there have not as yet been any commercial applications of biocomputing.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The B word. If something is wrong with a piece of software or hardware so that it stops working or destroys your data or just acts weird, the product is said to have a bug, or to be buggy. The term actually comes down to us from the real live crawling and flying bugs that used to get into those old giant-sized computers .



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Bleed refers to any element on a page that is printed beyond the edge of the paper. Whenever you see anything (text, graphics, photographs) that is printed right up to the edge of the paper, it was actually printed onto larger paper over the margin guidelines, and the paper was trimmed.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Computer products go through extensive testing before they can be released to the unsuspecting and trusting public. When a product has passed the in-house testing stage (see alpha testing), it goes into beta testing, often just called beta. Beta versions of the product are sent out for beta testing to "normal" people who don't work for the company. (These people are then, logically, called beta testers or beta sites.) The beta testers work with the software or hardware in real-life situations and report back the things that go wrong or that need improvement.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Beep is the generic term for whatever sound a computer makes when it's trying to tell you something. If you press the wrong key or click on something you shouldn't, the computer will beep at you. Sometimes it beeps just to let you know that it has started or finished doing something (like copying a file). You can customize the beep sound in some computers. In particular, newer Macs and pcs with Windows 3.1 come with several sounds you can assign to various types of "events" in the system. Hundreds can be added, and you can even make your own sounds.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow between two points in a certain period of time. The "broader" the bandwidth, the faster the information flow. You can use the term to describe how quickly information moves from the hard disk into memory, or from the computer to an add-in board on the expansion bus, or from one modem to another across a telephone line. Depending on whether the transmission is digital or analog, the rate is measured in bits per second (bps) or in hertz (cycles per second).



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Seek Time refers to how long it takes the read/ write head on a hard disk to move from one track to another. Technically, seek time is only one factor affecting "average" access time, and is not the same as access time. Because it sounds faster, certain disk vendors may try to woo you by quoting seek time specifications for their disks, but you should really base your comparisons on average access time.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Automated Teller Machine (ATM) Also called a CASH POINT, a combined computer terminal and cash dispensing machine connected via a WAN to a bank's central computers, that enables customers to make cash withdrawals and inspect account details from public sites such as streets, airports, shops and petrol stations. ATMs typically provide a small display screen that presents menus to the user, surrounded by a small number of buttons to make menu selections, and a numeric keypad for entering the customer's PIN number - the latter is checked against that stored on the customer's cash card, which must be inserted into a slot as a means of AUTHENTICATION.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

        Application Program

Application Program: Applications programs are programs written to solve specific problems, to produce specific reports, or to update specific files. A computer program that performs useful work on behalf of the user of the computer (for example a word processing or accounting program) as opposed to the SYSTEM SOFTWARE which manages the running of the computer itself, or to the DEVELOPMEN software which is used by programmers to create other programs.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

1.Most generally, the range of values within which an ADDRESS has meaning and can be guaranteed to be unique. In everyday life, for example, each street constitutes a separate address space so that the same number, 12, might be used to describe different houses in Acacia Avenue and Laburnum Grove.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

address line One of the parallel conductors that make up a processor's address bus, and by extension the data bit that corresponds to that particular conductor: used as in 'we decode only the lower 17 address lines'.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Adaptive Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM): A class of algorithms used for compressing "digital audio data, which work by storing the differences between one SAMPLE and the next: for example with 16-bit samples, only a 4-bit difference might be stored, thus achieving 4:1 compression ratio. The popular WAV sound file format employs variants of the ADPCM scheme.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Machine language is generally referred to as first-generation language, assembly language is known as second-generation language, and high-level languages such as C, C++, Java, etc., are called third-generation languages.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

An assembler is a software program that takes what the programmer wrote in assembly language and translates it into a program the computer can run. (Actually, the output of the assembler must be processed by a "linker" to produce the finished program.)



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Artificial intelligence (AI) A branch of computer science that was pursued with great optimism in the 1960s and 70S, in an attempt to make computers think more like human beings. It analyzes data and draw conclusions in a way that makes them appear to be "intelligent." Now of course, computers can't think or do anything without being told what to do. So AI programs use complex formulas which attempt to arrive at an answer in a method similar to how a human might do it.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Similar to the architecture of a building, the architecture of a computer refers to the design structure of the computer system and all its details: the system, the circuits, the chips, the busses, the expansion slots, the system firmware, BIOS, etc. The architecture largely determines how fast the computer is and what it can do. It also decides whether one computer is compatible with another. Can the same boards be used? Yes, if the architecture is compatible. Different models will have basically the same uses, but with varying degrees of performance. The architecture is what ensures backward compatibility, which means that your old software can run on a new computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

There are several varieties of computerprograms,but the ones most of us are familiar with are theapplications. An application is software with a specific use, such as writing, dealing with numbers, organizing large amounts of data, etc. Popular types of applications include word processors, database managers, spreadsheets, graphics applications, money managers, and games. Other types of computer software include utilities (programs designed to tune the performance of the computer), and system software (basic programs, such as DOS, which are required to operate the PC).



 
by Dinesh Thakur

If there is too much static electricity hanging around, it can actually disrupt your computer, causing the screen to freeze or creating various other unpleasant disturbances that can destroy data. Static can even destroy the circuits inside your computer. Extra static can develop from the weather or from certain kinds of clothing or from activities like petting your cat while working on your computer, shuffling around on the carpet, or rubbing a balloon on your head. So a variety of antistatic devices have been developed to help prevent this, devices such as wrist bands, floor mats, sprays, and little metal pads that say "Touch Me."



 
by Dinesh Thakur

ANSI.SYS (pronounced "ansee dot sis") is adriver file a little software module, orcontroller used by MSDOS and OS/2, ANSI.SYS tells the computer how to display information based on the standard codes adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Each code in the ANSI table represents either a character (like the letter S) or a number (such as the number 5), and other keys found on the keyboard (such as the Enter key). Some codes in the table are not found on the keyboard, but programs use them for specific purposes (such as making the PC beep, or moving the cursor to the next line on-screen).



 
by Dinesh Thakur

ANSI is the acronym for the American National Standards Institute. This institute creates standards for a wide variety of industries, including computer programming languages. ANSI standards currently exist for vast numbers of such seemingly unrelated items as refrigerators, industrial carpet, mayonnaise, and computer parts, among others.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Analog is the opposite of digital, and I can only explain analog in relation to digital. Analog refers to things that are in a continuous flow or that have an infinite number of values-things that are "analogous" to real life.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

An address on your computer is similar to the address on your house it's a way for the computer to know where to send its messages, and a way for the information or the device to know it is being called upon.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

32-bit clean ROM is a read-only memory chip (the ones that are installed in the computer and you can't change) in which the software engineers did not monkey with the top eight bits.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

To stop a program or computer command, before it has finished naturally. The term also covers an unexpected termination by the computer because of a bug or malfunction.