by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Artificial intelligence (AI) A branch of computer science that was pursued with great optimism in the 1960s and 70S, in an attempt to make computers think more like human beings. It analyzes data and draw conclusions in a way that makes them appear to be "intelligent." Now of course, computers can't think or do anything without being told what to do. So AI programs use complex formulas which attempt to arrive at an answer in a method similar to how a human might do it.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Bootstrap: To start a computer by loading its OPERATING SYSTEM from disk storage into memory. The name alludes to the seeming absurdity of trying to lift oneself off the floor by pulling on one's own bootstraps - since it is the operating system that enables a computer to read disks, then loading itself from disk would seem to be a similar impossibility. This paradox is resolved by the presence of a small program called the BOOTSTRAP LOADER, which resides permanently in the computer (stored in a ROM chip) and contains just sufficient code to read the rest of the operating system from disk. This process is informally called 'booting' or 'booting up' the computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Application Program

Application Program: Applications programs are programs written to solve specific problems, to produce specific reports, or to update specific files. A computer program that performs useful work on behalf of the user of the computer (for example a word processing or accounting program) as opposed to the SYSTEM SOFTWARE which manages the running of the computer itself, or to the DEVELOPMEN software which is used by programmers to create other programs.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Machine language is generally referred to as first-generation language, assembly language is known as second-generation language, and high-level languages such as C, C++, Java, etc., are called third-generation languages.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

An EGA is a video adapter for IBM-type personal computers. This means it has the electronic circuits your computer needs to display images on the screen. EGA stands for enhanced graphics adapter, but don't be fooled by the name: EGAS came out in about 1985, and what was "enhanced" then (compared to a CGA) is obsolete now. Yes, they still work, and if you get a computer that has one, don't throw the EGA board away.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

ANSI is the acronym for the American National Standards Institute. This institute creates standards for a wide variety of industries, including computer programming languages. ANSI standards currently exist for vast numbers of such seemingly unrelated items as refrigerators, industrial carpet, mayonnaise, and computer parts, among others.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

There are several varieties of computer programs, but the ones most of us are familiar with are the application software. An application is software with a specific use, such as writing, dealing with numbers, organizing large amounts of data, etc. Popular types of applications software include word processors, database managers, spreadsheets, graphics applications, money managers, and games. Other types of computer software include utilities (programs designed to tune the performance of the computer), and system software (basic programs, such as DOS , windows ,UNIX , Linux , MAC which are required to operate the PC).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Seek Time refers to how long it takes the read/ write head on a hard disk to move from one track to another. Technically, seek time is only one factor affecting "average" access time, and is not the same as access time. Because it sounds faster, certain disk vendors may try to woo you by quoting seek time specifications for their disks, but you should really base your comparisons on average access time.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Device independent components work right no matter what model of device you use them with. For example, if the graphic file format in your publication is device independent, the results you see on paper will look about the same whether you print to an HP DeskJet, an Apple LaserWriter, or a high-resolution Linotronic image setter (the graphic will be printed at whatever resolution the printer uses).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

COMMAND.COM is the program that serves as the DOS command processor, or the DOS shell if you prefer. Like any operating system, DOS itself is simply software, albeit software that has a very special role in running your computer. Dos consists of a conglomeration of programs, utilities, and device drivers, but at its core are three key pieces of software. They must be present on the disk you use to start your computer, or the computer won't work. Of these three pieces of software, the only one you're likely to run across is COMMAND.COM-you'll see it in the list of files on your screen when you display the directory of that start-up disk, by typing DIR and pressing Enter. (The other two essential DOS files are hidden files, so you won't see them in the directory list.)



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.



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