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by Dinesh Thakur

A FQDN consists of a host, a second-level domain and top-level domain.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A CNAME is simply an alias for a host record. The CNAMEs allow you to have more than one DNS name for each host record. The CNAME points to the parameter A. So if you change your IP address in the parameter A, all your CNAME records follow the new IP address of the parameter A.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The IEEE 802.22 Working Group started its activities in 2004 with the aim of achieving a regional radio network. The frequency bands used are primarily the digital dividend, that is to say the frequency bands that will be freed when television will fully and finally digital. In France, it is planned for 2010. In the rest of the world, this should be spread between now and 2015.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Today, hundreds of major companies market TCP / IP products. It is they who decide the placing on the market of new technology, not the researchers, as originally. The governance of the Internet has been completely redesigned in the late 2000s Authority over the Internet central coordination functions exercised by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). In fact, it's Jon Postel who held that office until his death in 1998. Today it is ICANN performs that function.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In the late 1960s, the US Department of Defense decides to make a large network from a multitude of small networks, all different, which begin to abound everywhere in North America. We had to find a way to these networks coexist and give them an outdoor visibility, the same for all users. Hence the name of InterNetwork (interline), abbreviated as Internet, data this network of networks.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The user generates IP packets, it is necessary to transport these IP packets to the ADSL modem. For this, we use an Ethernet frame, a PPP frame, a USB frame, or a superposition of these frames as a PPP frame encapsulated in an Ethernet frame or a PPP frame encapsulated in a USB frame.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The metal lines have been used for decades for the transport of the telephone speech with a bandwidth of 3200 Hz. They are used today for transport, at the same time as the telephone, broadband data packets. The xDSL environment is devoted to terrestrial broadband connections, we give here in an introduction.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Fragmentation occurs when you save a file containing more data than can fit into one contiguous (connected) space on the disk. When this happens, the drive splits the data into many pieces small enough to fit wherever it can find the next empty space. If that first space isn't large enough, it puts down the next piece at the next empty space, and so on and so on. This is actually quite an efficient method of making use of the entire disk, as you can imagine how quickly a disk would fill if the computer needed a contiguous space for each file.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

File sharing is when a person on one computer can use the files from another computer while the file is still on the other computer. The computers that want to share files with each other must be connected via a network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

In a computer network,the file server is the computer responsible for storing and retrieving the files used by all the computers connected to the network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

E-mail is short for electronic mail, mail you can send or receive directly on your computer. Yes, with e-mail people can actually write you letters and send them to your computer, and you can turn on your computer and go pick up your mail whenever it's convenient. Many a love affair has begun through e-mail. I know. It's really fun, too. And useful, of course. E-mail can be a verb too, as in "I e-mailed my lover a letter from Lhasa."



 
by Dinesh Thakur

CompuServe (whose formal name is CompuServe Information Services, or CIS for short and sometimes CI$ for a statement) is a commercial online service that you can access through your modem. It has an incredible array of forums (sections devoted to particular interests), conferences, facilities for uploading and downloading information, and all the other benefits a powerful online service offers.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The application of FILE COMPRESSION algorithms to digital sound files to reduce their required storage space and hence their download time over low-bandwidth communication links such as the Internet. Lossless audio compression can be achieved using exactly the same algorithms as for any other kind of digital data. However, as with visual images, compression is most effective when some quality is sacrificed (so-called LOSSY compression methods), and the most widely used compressed formats such as MP3 and REAL AUDIO use such methods to achieve compression ratios on the order of 60:1 to 80:1.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A service provided on many Internet servers that permits a casual visitor to download files using the FTP file transfer protocol without needing to possess a named account or password. The user merely logs in under the name 'anonymous' or 'ftp' and uses his/her email address as the PASSWORD, and is then granted access to a restricted set of directories that have been reserved for public access (and which are typically separated from those used by the local users).



 
by Dinesh Thakur

4G is a packet-switched technology that uses bandwidth much more efficiently, allowing each user's packets to complete for available bandwidth, and billing users for the amount of data transmitted. It also solves the non-standardization problems associated with 3G networks for voice, video, and data transmission.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

File transfer protocol is the way files are transferred from the server to the client across the network.

As good as Browsers are at reading web pages they are not so good when it comes to transferring large files over the Internet. For this FTP or File Transfer Protocol is needed.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Initially developed by Sun Microsystems Incorporated, the NFS provides on-line shared file access that is transparent and integrated; many TCP/IP sites use NFS to interconnect their computer's file systems. From the user's perspective, NFS is almost invisible. A user can execute an arbitrary application program and use arbitrary files for input or output. The file names themselves do not show whether the files are local or remote. Network File System allows the user to access, read, and modify a file on a remote device, (on the same network, usually), as if it were on the client machine.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a framework for managing devices in an internet using the TCP/IP protocol suite. It provides a set of fundamental operations for monitoring and maintaining an internet.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a protocol used mainly to access data on the World Wide Web. This protocol transfers data in the form of plain text, hypertext, audio, video, and so on. However, it is called the hypertext transfer protocol because its efficiency allows its use in a hypertext environment, where there are rapid jumps from one document to another.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The generic GSM network architecture is composed of three subsystems as the Radio Subsystem (RSS), the network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) and the Operation Subsystem (OSS). The subscriber carries the Mobile Station, which is part or RSS.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In the beginning around 1980s, analog cellular telephone systems were developing in Europe and each country was developing its own system and thus making them confined within their country boundaries. Later on, the need for an European public land mobile system was realized. In 1982, the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT),formed a study group called the Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) to develop a pan-European standard With the objectives of providing good subjective speech quality, support for international roaming etc. The proposed system was expected to meet certain criteria as mentioned below:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A cellular mobile communications system consists of a large number of low power wireless transmitters to create cells. These cells cover a certain area and typically called as base station. Depending upon the power level the size of cells can be decided. In this way, the radii of a cell may vary from tens of meters to tens of kilometers in a building to a city respectively.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Cellular radio has other popular names as cellular mobile or mobile phone. Radio is basically a device, which uses receiver and transmitter. Wireless communication can also be carried out without using radio. The interference caused by high power line to radio transmission is also an example of wireless communication though it is termed as noise. Inductive and conductive circuits and devices can communicate wirelessly for limited distance with less reliability and implementation problem. Therefore, these techniques cannot be termed as radio transmission.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

This section presents an overview of the most common protocols used for TCP/IP communication. The discussion focuses on the nature of these applications and the purpose they serve.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

• Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) is suited for those applications that do not require complex procedures of FTP and do not have enough resources (RAM, ROM) for this purpose.

• Typical applications of TFTP include loading the image on diskless machine and upgrading the operating system in network devices such as routers.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

• Cookie is a special header sent by the server to the client or browser.

• Cookie introduces session information.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The WWW is the brainchild of Tim Berners Lee a CERN who had the idea of creating an electronic web of research information. The web is currently the fastest growing Internet information system, with new resources being added regularly. The web relies on a set of protocols, conventions and software to operate. The web is a distributed system of delivering linked documents over the Internet.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A Cable Modem provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a cable television (CATV) infrastructure. Cable modems are primarily used to deliver broadband Internet access in the form of cable Internet, taking advantage of the high bandwidth of a cable television network.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

ADSL:-Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL): A BROADBAND digital telecommunications (xDSL) technology that can operate over existing copper telephone lines, and is one of the technologies vying to replace ISDN. ADSL uses an upgraded phone line, all-digital technology, and supports simultaneous Internet browsing and phone use. ADSL is a much newer technology.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

TELNET : TELNET (TELecommunication NETwork) is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area network (LAN) connections. It was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15 and standardized as IETF STD 8, one of the first Internet standards.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Before discussing about Domain Name Server: we are going to explain some factor and simple difference between Domain Name Server and Domain Name System.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol used by networkeddevices or clients to obtain the parameters necessary for operationin an Internet Protocol network. This protocol reduces systemadministration workload, allowing devices to be added to thenetwork with little or no manual configurations.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a way to administratornetwork parameter assignment from a single DHCP server, or agroup of DHCP servers arranged in a fault-tolerant manner. Evenin small networks,



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) : The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) enables a client workstation to initialize with a minimal IP stack and request its IP address, a gateway address, and the address of a name server from a BOOTP server.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator that identifies a particular Internet resource. URL help the user to locate web page, gopher service, library catalog and image or text file locations. URLs are the standard addressing system of the www. A complete URL provides the web client with all the information it needs to contact a server and make a request for information. URLs are divided into three basic parts:



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Internet, World Wide Web (WWW) and information super highway have penetrated into lives of millions of people all over the world. The Internet is a network made up of thousands of networks worldwide. Obviously, these networks are composed of computers and other intelligent and active devices. In fact, Internet is an example of self-regulating mechanism and there is no one in-charge of the Internet.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

"VOIP - Short for Voice Over Internet Protocol, a category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls by sending voice data in packets using IP rather than by traditional circuit transmissions.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Network Address Translation (NAT) is the process where a network device, usually a firewall, assigns a public address to a computer (or group of computers) inside a private network. The main use of NAT is to limit the number of public IP addresses an organization or company must use, for both economy and security purposes.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

X.400 is a suite of ITU-T Recommendations that define standards for Data Communication Networks for Message Handling Systems (MHS) — more commonly known as "email".

 
by Dinesh Thakur

SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It is a TCP/IP protocol that specifies how computers exchange electronic mail. It works with post office protocol (POP).



 
by Dinesh Thakur

UUCP is derived from Unix-to-Unix copy. It is a standard UNIX utility that manages the transmission of information between UNIX systems, using serial connections and regular telephone lines. The Communications package was developed at Bell Laboratory by Mile Lesk in the mid-1970s for serial communications between in-house UNIX systems.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

It is a simple protocol used for opening the remote e-mail boxes. This protocol is defined in RFC 1225. Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is a message access protocol that enables the client to fetch an e-mail from the remote mail server.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

IMAP stands for Interactive Mail Access Protocol and it is defined in RFC 1064. IMAP version 4 is mail access protocol that is similar to POP3. IMAP has more features an4 is more powerful and complex as compared to POP3. It allows a client to access and manipulate e-mails and mailboxes. IMAP runs on the well-known TCP port 143. IMAP was devised to overcome the limitations ofPOP3.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

MIME stands for (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions). It is widely used internet standard for coding binary files to send them as e-mail attachments over the internet. MIME allows an E-mail message to contain a non-ASCII file such as a video image or a sound and it provides a mechanism to transfer a non text characters to text characters.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

What is FTP? One of the most popular uses of the Internet is to download files - that is, transfer files from a computer on the Internet to your computer. Many thousands of files are downloaded every day from the Internet. Most of these files are downloaded using the Internet's File Transfer Protocol, commonly referred to as FTP. This protocol can also be used to upload files from your computer to another computer on the Internet.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Network News Transfer Protocol is an Internet application protocol used for transporting Usenet news articles (Netnews) between news servers and for reading and posting articles by end user client applications. Brian Kantor of the University of California, San Diego and Phil Lapsley of the University of California, Berkeley authored RFC 977, the specification for the Network News Transfer Protocol, in March 1986. Other contributors included Stan Barber from the Baylor College of Medicine and Erik Fair of Apple Computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A videoconference or video conference (also known as a video-teleconference) is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. It has also been called 'visual collaboration' and is a type of groupware.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet Protocol technologies to securely share any part of an organization's information or operational systems within that organization. The term is used in contrast tointernet,a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Low cost business terminals with small antennas (generally less than 2 metres in diameter) are often termed Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs). These are usually perceived as being two way data terminals, though strictly speaking many of the systems used for data broadcast are really one-way VSATs. Taking the USA as an example, approximately half of all installed VSATs are only used for one way data links.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

SSL (Secure Socket Layer) is a network layer security protocol which is responsible for ensuring security of data or messages in transit through http, ldap, smtp, imap or pop3 application layers and practically ensures a reliable end-to-end secure and authenticated connection between the client and the server over the open Internet.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A web server is a computer programs that delivers (serves) content, such as Web pages, using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), over the World Wide Web. The term Web server can also refer to the computer or virtual machine running the program. In large commercial deployments, a server computer running a Web server can be rack-mounted in a server rack or cabinet with other servers to' operate a Web farm.