by Dinesh Thakur

CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) The most popular fabrication process for modern INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, which employs LOGIC GATES made out of complementary pairs of FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS called the P-CHANNEL and N-CHANNEL respectively. The p-channel transistor is made within a well of n-type silicon, while the n-channel is made directly in the doped silicon SUBSTRATE. These two transistors are arranged so that a current flows only momentarily while the gate is switching, and none flows in its on or off states, which enormously reduces power consumption as compared with older BIPOLAR processes. It is this benign property that permits the phenomenal improvement in chip performance over recent decades that is referred to as MOORE'S LAW.