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by Dinesh Thakur

In 1986 the International Organization for Standardization released ISO 8879 entitled 'Information Processing - Text and Office Systems - Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Although this defined a standard for the first time nothing much happened after that, mainly because no-one knew what to do with it. Then Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web and suddenly the demand was there.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Active Server Pages (ASP) A web technology invented by Microsoft which enables program code and ACTIVEX objects to be embedded into web pages' to achieve effects, such as pull down lists or tables of database records, not possible in HTML alone. ASP works only with Microsoft's Internet Information Server, and permits scripts to be written in a variety of languages. When a request is made for the URL of their containing page, such scripts run on the server (rather than in the browser as Java applets do) and dynamically generate a page of ordinary HTML that is returned to the requesting client.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Another label associated with the HTML format is <blockquote> paragraphs, which consists of an instruction start and end, which indicates that the paragraph that contains a paraphrased. By using this label on browser displays the text or new paragraph with margins left and right.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Doctype is a piece of code that goes in the first line of an HTML webpage. Don't worry about what's in it just recognize that this line is a Doctype. And I said 'a' Doctype as the fun part is there are a whole bunch of them. Which is why it is so important for you to understand which type pertains to your website.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

If what is needed is to separate two different sections of a page, whether text or not, may be employed new label: <hr>. Its name comes from English Horizontal Rule (horizontal line). This label is formed by a single instruction and causes the browser to insert a horizontal line it separating the two paragraphs that were being compared. There are four attributes that allow change its appearance. These are:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

So far we had used only a colored background. You can specify a background image instead. Including a suitable background image makes your page much more attractive. To add a background image use the attribute "background" in the opening <BODY>tag.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

 It's time to learn how to enter text on a website, but you need to understand how this text will be interpreted. When a browser reads the HTML page and interpreted for display the page, all multiple spaced, tabulated or line has been included in the texts be interpreted as a single space.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

This tag is used to scroll text horizontally across the screen. It is mainly used to deliver a specific message to the visitor or to scroll Ads on a page. It is not a standard HTML tag and so the browser support for it is typically limited to Internet explorer.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Two attributes "rowspan" and "colspan" are used to combine adjoining cells into larger cells. These attributes are used in either <TH> or <TD> tags and accepts a number as value. For rowspan attribute this number indicates the number of rows a cell should take up and for colspan the number of columns the cell should span. In both the cases the present cell is included in counting.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Including larger images in web pages increases the loading time. You can resize your images by using the height and width attributes but still the full size image is downloaded. Decreasing loading time is one of the major aspects of web designing. Instead of using a large image you can include a small version of the actual image called thumbnail which is also a link to the larger version including thumbnails, visitors have a choice whether to see the actual image or not.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

URL, is a fancy name for address. Each file on the Internet has a unique URL.

The first part of the URL is called the protocol. It tells the browser how to deal with the file that it is about to open. One of the most common protocols you will see it HTTP, or Hypertext Transfer Protocol.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

In general, when a visitor clicks the "submit" button, two things are sent to the server: the data that the visitor typed into the form, and an action, which basically tells .the server the name of the program, which knows how to process the form's data.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

<address>, in English means direction. This label is composed also of two directions and is used to include information about the author of a web page or related items. May be an example of its use in existing tag lines at the end of many pages that include user information from varied as can be, besides the author, the date of the last modified, the current date, the URL of the page, etc.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

We have seen a number of tags that allow you to change line, create different types of paragraphs or insert lines are separated. We have also seen some of the labels used with the attribute 'align' that Indicates the alignment.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

An HTML form is a section of a web document into which the user can enter information. This information is passed back to a web server where it might be recorded in a database for future use or perhaps used to control what information is returned to the user.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

To access the form elements the user either clicks the mouse or uses the tab key. You can give your visitors a direct keyboard access by using access key attribute. This attribute specifies the character that you assign to the form element as a particular hot key. When the key is pressed together with the "alt" key, the corresponding form element gets activated.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Now we will be discussing how to navigate through a particular form. By default, you navigate through the form in the order in which elements appear in the form, using tab index attribute you can change this default order. Just place the tabindex attribute in the input field. Our sample form shows the following fields and they will be accessed in the order they are listed. Using the tabindex attribute the order will change. The following code shows the new order as below:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

<FIELDSET>tag creates a box around a group of widgets and <LEGEND>tag provides a label to the field set. Both tags require closing tags.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The input "type" = hidden is unusual in the respect that they do not appear in the displayed form. By setting the "type" attribute to hidden, it is possible to transmit default or previously specified text that is hidden from the user to the handling program.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

HTML also supports a special input field, a file field, to allow visitors to upload files. If you want visitors to submit information - say a picture, a spreadsheet, a word-processed document or a scanned document, they can use this field to simply upload the file with the hassle of using FTP or e-mail the file.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

SUBMIT- After filling up the form, the user needs to submit the information. An <INPUT> tag with type = submit provides a button that submits the information in the completed form to the URL, given as the action attribute of the FORM tag.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

This tag is used to set an area within a form in which the user can type a large amount of text. The textarea's are basically used for giving comments and free form feedback from visitors.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A pull down menu lets the user select one choice out of many possible choices. One nice aspect of pull-down menus is that all choices do not have to be seen on the screen and are normally hidden. They occupy minimal amount of space as it displays only on item of the list. In this kind of input field you use <SELECT>instead of <INPUT> and it has a closing tag.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

An INPUT tag with attribute type ="checkbox" offers the user an "on" or "off" switch. Each check box works independently from the others, visitors can select or deselect any combination of checkboxes use of these boxes is appropriate for open questions or questions that have more than one "right" answer. Checkboxes appear as square boxes and contain a checkmark when act as a checkbox is switch on when the form is submitted its value attribute is submitted as the form data for the named form component.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Radio buttons are mutually exclusive i.e. they allow the user to choose one of the several options. Selecting one turns the other options off. These buttons are viewed in the browser as small circles with a prompt and the selected one appears with a solid dot in it.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Password fields are similar to text fields, except the contents of the field are not visible on the screen. It displays * * * * (asterisks) instead or the actual input.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The most common "type" of form <INPUT> is text. It presents the user with a prompt for a single line of text. These fields are commonly used for a name address, email address, country, postal code etc. It is a blank area within a form and is the place for visitor-supplied information.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

This tag defines an input area within a form. It asks the user to input information in one of several ways. The different ways of input are specified by "type attribute. This attribute can accept text, radio, checkbox, passwords submit, reset, image, hidden, etc. as its value. Each of them will be discussed separately in the coming sections.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

You can use images as links to other pages. Image links can replace a long text so that you get valuable space for other page elements. To add an image as a link just add the anchor tags <A> before the <IMG> tag and at the end add the closing anchor </A> tag.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Before we go on to explain hyperlinks, let us try to differentiate linear and non-linear text.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

An Ordered list is one that is numbered and may also be used to indicate sequential form of information. <OL> and </OL> are opening and closing tags for an ordered list respectively. The code used for ordering the List as below:



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A table is an orderly arrangement of data distributed across a grid of rows and columns similar to a spreadsheet. In printed documents, tables commonly serve a subordinate function, illustrating some point described by accompanying text. Tables still perform this illustrative function in HTML documents.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Unordered lists are used to represent a set of items that have a relation among themselves but do not follow a specific order. The syntax is same as that of ordered list, only <OL> and </OL> tags are replaced by <UL> and </UL>.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

You can even set background color for the whole table, row or for a table cell (data or header). The background color can be set for the whole table by using bgcolor = color" attribute in the <TABLE>Tag.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a specification defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), defining how a program interacts with a Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) provides the middleware between WWW servers and external databases and information sources. CGI applications perform specific information processing, retrieval, and formatting tasks on behalf of WWW servers.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A definition list is a list of terms paired with associated definitions - in other words, a glossary. Definition list (which cannot in the strictest sense be called a list) is used to provide two levels of information.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A frame is an independent scrolling region or window, of a web page. A framed document divides a browser window into multiple panes or smaller window frames. Each frame may contain a different document. Frames can communicate with each other so that an action performed on a page in one frame can change the contents and behavior of another frame.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The label is used to insert images: <img>. This tag consists of a single instruction and so </ img> does not exist and their use is prohibited. We can insert an image in mid sentence as if it were a word of it and will be displayed by the browser after the text.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Now day’s lists are omnipresent. Whenever one jots down the items to be bought from a grocery store, one goes through the telephone directory to look for a particular phone number or looks up at the table of contents of a book, or is taking the help of lists to make his task easier. In fact, lists are the best method of organizing information and presenting it in a structured fashion.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A paragraph is a set of sentences on the same subject. HTML to mark a paragraph tag is used p, standing instruction <p> start at the beginning of the paragraph and the statement of purpose </ p> after the last sentence. These can be inserted so many line breaks as you want and many other HTML elements. A Below is an example:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

An image can either be included in a table cell or can act as a background in a table:

 

1. To add a background image: Use "background" attribute in the opening <TABLE>tag. It will take the URL of the image as its value and the background images are titled throughout the available table space.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Meta tags are a way for you to define your web page and web site to the outside world. You can declare the title, keywords and description which help your placement b search engines. In addition you can specify who owns copyright, how often the page is to be visited by search engines and many other useful pieces of information.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Anchors elements are used to link multiple HTML documents. It requires only one tag viz., the <A> tag. It occurs only in the body of an HTML document. If an anchor is used to turn text into a hyperlink, the text is usually colored blue and underlined.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Tables with borders are much easier to read and are more attractive. You can specify a table border by using "border = number" attribute in the opening table tag. The number specifies the width of the border around the table in pixels.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

What is HTML?At its most fundamental, Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a set of special codes that you embed in text to add formatting and linking information. HTML is based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). By convention, all HTML information begins with an open angle bracket (<) and ends with a closing angle bracket (>), for example, <html>.