A wide variety of techniques are being applied for IS panning. However, organizations select these techniques based on the persuasive power of IS developers rather than on a sound logic.
The main reason of selecting wrong techniques is attributed to the non-identification of the stage the information system of the organization is in. this model describes the four generic planning activities, namely, strategic planning, requirement analysis, resource allocation and project planning.
Fig: Four Stage Model of IS Planning
The four stage IS planning model, besides providing insight into the planning process, reduces confusion about the selection of competing planning methodologies.
Four stages of IS planning model
IS planning activity Description
Strategic Planning Matches the overall organizational plan with the IS plan.
Information Requirement Identifying broad, organizational information
Resource allocation Allocating resources for IS development and operation.
Project planning Formulating a plan giving resource requirements for specific IS projects and schedules.
In this planning stage, objectives, goals and strategies are compared with the objectives, goals and strategies of the organisation. The following techniques are used:
i) Derivation from the organsiational plan
ii) The strategic information system grid
iii) Strategic fit with organsiational culture
iv) Strategy set transformation
Information Requirements Analysis:
This stage deals with the current and future needs for IS to support decision-making and operations of the organisation. To undertake information requirement analysis, the following steps are followed
i) Define underlying organisational requirements
ii) Develop sub-system matrix
iii) Define and evaluate information requirements for organisational sub-systems
After identification of the need for information system applications for entire organisation, the next phase is allocation of resources.
The last stage of four-stage model of MIS planning is project planning which provides an overall framework for system development planning, scheduling and controlling. A wide variety of tools of project management are available, which include milestones, critical path method (CPM) and Gantt Charts.