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by Dinesh Thakur

When an element of a structure has to be accessed through pointer, then the -> operator is used. It is essential to initialize the pointer before it accesses any structure element.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Structure elements can be referenced by writing the structure variable before the structure element. The structure variable and the structure element are separated by a dot (.) which is called the dot operator. For example

 
by Dinesh Thakur

This method assumes that the set of elements in a list is first arranged in ascending or descending order. The list is initially divided into two parts and the mid point is found. If the number to be searched is less than the value of the element at the mid point, it implies that the given number lies in the first part of the list, otherwise the given number lies in the second part of the list. This is illustrated as follows:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The linear search procedure gives the method of finding whether an element is present in a set of elements (array) or not. The given element is compared with each element in the set one by one. The process is repeated until a perfect match is found. The array comprises of unsorted elements.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Insertion Sort is a sorting technique based on the idea of inserting a new element in a set of given elements so that the resulting elements are also in sorted order. Suppose a set of 4 elements A[0], A[l], A[2], A[3] are to be sorted in ascending order. Initially sort A[0]and A[l] in ascending order. If A[l] is less than A[0], interchange their positions. Otherwise the positions of the elements remain the same. Next insert A[2] in the appropriate position so that the resulting array A[0], A[l] and A[2] remain sorted. The process is repeated in this manner.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In this method, the smallest item in a given series of n elements is found and is placed in the first position. Then the smallest item from the remaining (n-l) elements is found and is placed in the second position and so on. This method requires (n-l) passes for arranging n elements.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In Bubble sort, two consecutive elements in a given list are compared and their positions in the given list (array) are interchanged in ascending or descending order as desired. Consider the following series of numbers, which are to be arranged in ascending or descending order. The series of numbers to be arranged are presented in the form of an array. The input array has the following form:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Arrays are declared as follows:

 

int p[5];

float temp[30];

char a[7];

 
by Dinesh Thakur

An array of structures refers to an array in which each element is of structure type. To declare an array of structures, firstly, a structure is defined and then an array of that structure is declared. The syntax for declaring an array of structures is

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Like other user defined data types, a structure can also include another structure, as its member, in its definition. A structure defined within another structure is known as a nested structure.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A structure can be used in a program only if memory is allocated to it. The structure definition informs the compiler about the type and the number of data members in the structures. However, it does not allocate any memory for the structure. To use a structure in a program efficiently, a structure variable needs to be declared. The syntax for declaring a structure variable is



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Like arrays, structures are also used to store a list of data items in a single variable. However, these data items may be of different data types. Structures are used whenever a programmer requires binding the same or different types of related data items together into a single entity.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Multi-dimensional arrays can be described as 'arrays of arrays', that is, each element of the array is itself an array. A multi-dimensional array of dimension n is a collection of items that are accessed with the help of n subscript values.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A single-dimensional array is the simplest form of an array that requires only one subscript to access an array element. Like an ordinary variable, an array must have been declared before it is used in the program. The syntax for declaring a single-dimensional array is

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Both the structures and unions are syntactically and functionally same, however, they differ in the way memory is allocated to their members. While declaring structure variables, the different members are stored in different, although, adjacent memory locations whereas different members of a union variable share the same memory location. The amount of memory sufficient to hold the largest member of a union is allocated to a union variable. Thus, a union enables the same block of memory to store variable of one type at one time and of different type at another time. To understand the concept of memory allocation to a union, consider these statements.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The function malloc () of header file <stdlib.h> allocates memory of size (in bytes) expressed as its argument. The return value of malloc () is a void pointer to the first byte of the allocated block of memory. However, if the process of allocation of memory fails due to lack of sufficient memory, or due to some other reason, it returns NULL pointer. The argument of malloc () is the unsigned integer or an expression which evaluates to an unsigned integer. Any program using this function should also have statements which check the return value of the function so that if the memory is not available one can gracefully exit from the program.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Union is also like a Structure means Unions is also used for Storing data of different data types But the Difference b/w Structure and Union is that Structure Consume the Memory of addition of all elements of Different Data Types but a Union Consume the Memory that is Highest among all variables.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

We Know that C++ Language Provides us the various types of data types like Int,Float Char etc These are also called the Predefined Data types those are used for Storing the values in the Variables



 
by Dinesh Thakur

These are the Special Variables those are used storing the address of variable .We know that Every variable must be Stored in Memory of Computer or in other words a Small part of Memory if used by a Variable For Storing his value So that For Storing a Value into a variable



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Arrays:- When there is a need to use many variables then There is a big problem because we will Conflict with name of variables So that in this Situation where we wants to Operate on many numbers then we can use array . The Number of Variables also increases the complexity of the Program. So that we uses Arrays.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

We know that Files are used for Storing Permanent information. And C++ provides a Facility to a developer the Retrieve the Information from File and he may also modify the Contents of a File So that we can say that File Handling is the Concept to Store, Retrieve and Modify the Information which is stored in the Form of Files in your Computer.