DOS commands are small programs, which are made to perform a particular job. Every DOS command performs different task. It is not possible to work on the computer without these commands. There are two types of DOS command.
(1) Internal Commands
(2) External Commands
Internal Commands : These commands enter into the computer memory during computer booting. These commands are not in the form of any file; so neither they can be viewed nor can be edited or detected. For example : MD, CD, TIME, DATE, COPY, COPR CON, TYPE ETC.
External Commands : These commands are stored in the computer list in the form of files. These Commands can be viewed, copied, changed or deleted. For example : FORMAT, COPY, PRINT, SYS, EDIT, TREE, SORT, PROMPT etc.
Important Internal DOS Commands :
(i) MD (Make Directory) : We use this commands to make a new directory or sub directory.
Syntax : C\:>MD DIRECTORY NAME
Example : MD STUDENT
(ii) CD (Change Directory) : This commands is used to move from one directory to another.
Syntax : C:\> CD Directory name
Example : > CD Student
Exit to Directory :
CD… The command move the subdirectory to parent directory.
CD\ The command is used to move directly to the root directory.
(iii) RD (Remove Directory) : If a Directory which was earlier is ;not required than such directory can be removed by using
Syntax : C:\> RD Directory name
Example : >RD student
Note : (a) The directory, which is to be removed, must be empty.
(b) The directory in which one is working cannot be removed.
One has to close the directory and come to the parent directory to remove that directory.
(iv) Copy Con : Its command is used to create a file. The name of the file, which is to be created, is written after the copy Con leaving one space in between
Syntax : Copy Con file name
To created a file, the following steps are :
(i) Type Copy Con Monu and press Enter.
(ii) Type whatever is to be typed in the file.
(iii) Press F6 function key or CTRL + Z keys ‘?Z’ will be displayed on the screen, which indicates that the file is complete.
(iv) Press Enter and after that the DOS will save the file and will display the message ‘1 File(s) copied.
(v) Del : This command is used to erase the files which are no longer required.
Syntax : C:\> Del < File name >
Example : >Del Monu
(vi) Type : This command is used to view the contents of text file.
Syntax : Type <file name>
(vii) Copy : This command is used to copy of file from one place to another place. A copy of file is another file with the same contents.
Syntax : C:1> copy <source> < destination path>
(viii) Ren : This command is used to rename the file. In REN command two parameters are used. The first is the file we want to rename and the second is the new name for the file.
Syntax : > Ren <old file name> <New file name>
(ix) DIR : This command is used to display of directory and files.
Syntax : C:\> DIR ?
(x) CLS : This command is used to clear the screen.
Syntax : C:\> CLS