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by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

A file format refers to the particular structure that a document (also called a "data file") is stored in, whether it contains graphics, text, a spreadsheet, etc. For instance, in a word processing document, the file format would include the codes that represent each character; the codes for creating the text styles, such as italic or bold; and information such as the type of application the document was created in.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Bus Cycle: The sequence of primitive operations for transferring each item of data over a computer's BUS, which are performed in time with the system CLOCK SIGNAL. Each bus cycle may take several clock cycles, and may be either a READ or WRITE cycle depending on the direction of data transfer. The steps for a read cycle might be:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

A particular method of specifying the OPERAND for a MACHINE CODE instruction for some computer processors.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

If a computer uses 32-bit addressing, that means the address can have 32 numbers. With the possibility of each number being either a one or a zero, there are 4 billion different addresses available (232). Four billion bytes (each memory location holds one byte) is 4,096 megabytes, which is 4 gigabytes. So with 32-bit addressing you can theoretically address 4 gigabytes of memory.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

ClSC (pronounced "sisk") stands for complex instruction set computing. A CISC chip is a microprocessor that has a large set of instructions that are built into its microcode so it can carry out most computations directly. Compare CISC chips with RISC chips, which recognize fewer instructions. CISC term applied to all the older computer ARCHITECTURES to distinguish them from the new RISC designs introduced in the 1990s. RISC (reduced instruction set computing) technology is touted as faster than CISC and is increasingly common, although there is a great deal of debate over the pros and cons of each type of architecture.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

The BUS upon which a computer's CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT issues addresses to the memory system in order to read or write a word of data. In some system architectures, the data word itself may be transported via a separate DATA BUS.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Bus Speed: The rate at which a computer's PROCESSOR BUS can transmit data, which is a crucial determinant of its overall performance. The bus speed of most personal computers remained at 33 MHz for a decade, only recently being increased to 100 MHz, and technologies such as the two-level processor CACHE, DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS or the Accelerated GRAPHICS PORT can be seen as ways to surmount this restriction by bypassing the processor bus.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Slot One type of socket fitted to a computer's MOTHERBOARD into which expansion cards can be plugged.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

On a microcomputer, the bus is usually called anexpansion busbecause its design determines the degree to which the minimum configuration of the system can be expanded with regard to memory, processing speed, graphics capability, and peripheral support. The expansion bus is the collection of wires, paths, connectors, and controllers responsible for distributing the data and instructions from the microprocessor to the peripheral expansion cards.Slotsconnected to the bus provide places to plug those cards in, and the bus then provides a mechanism for communicating with them.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

The Analytical Engine, designed by Charles Babbage between 1833 and 1846, anticipated many features of electronic computing devices invented in the 1940s and 1950s. Although mechanical in all its operations, the Analytical Engine could carry out calculations of arbitrary complexity under the control of punched cards. Conditional branching was possible, and Babbage had prepared test programs that included elaborate calculations based on nested loop structures. In a beautiful anticipation of twentieth-century thinking, Babbage showed that, given sufficient time, any finite calculation could be carried out by the Analytical Engine.



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular Computer Notes blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to contact us.



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