by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

This methodology refers to a set of well-documented procedures and guidelines used in the analysis, design, and implementation of programs. Coding methodology includes a diagrammatic notation for documenting the results of the procedure. It also includes an objective set (ideally quantified) of criteria for determining whether the results of the procedure are of the desired quality. The steps to use coding' methodology are listed below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Writing an efficient software code requires a thorough knowledge of programming. This knowledge can be implemented by following a coding style which comprises several guidelines that help in writing the software code efficiently and with minimum errors. These guidelines, known as coding guidelines, are used to implement individual programming language constructs, comments, formatting, and so on. These guidelines, if followed, help in preventing errors, controlling the complexity of the program, and increasing the readability and understandability of the program.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

The code written for software should be according to the requirements of the users. A program is said to be good if the software code is flawless or contains minimum errors. For the effective performance of the software, some particular features are required in almost all languages that are used to write the software code. These features are listed below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

IEEE defines software design documentation as 'a description of software created to facilitate analysis, planning, implementation, and decision-making. This design description is -used as a medium for communicating software design information and can be considered as a blueprint or model of the system.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Software design reviews are a systematic, comprehensive, and well-documented inspection of design that aims to check whether the specified design requirements are adequate and the design meets all the specified requirements. In addition, they also help in identifying the problems (if any) in the design process. IEEE defines software design review as 'a formal meeting at which a system's preliminary or detailed design is presented to the user, customer, or other interested parties for comment and approval.' These reviews are held at the end of the design phase to resolve issues (if any) related to software design decisions, that is, architectural design and detailed design (component-level and interface design) of the entire software or a part of it (such as a database).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

As soon as the first iteration of architectural design is complete, component-level design takes place. The objective of this design is to transform the design model into functional software. To achieve this objective, the component-level design represents -the internal data structures and processing details of all the software components (defined during architectural design) at an abstraction level, closer to the actual code. In addition, it specifies an interface that may be used to access the functionality of all the software components.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Requirements of the software should be transformed into an architecture that describes the software's top-level structure and identifies its components. This is accomplished through architectural design (also called system design), which acts as a preliminary 'blueprint' from which software can be developed. IEEE defines architectural design as 'the process of defining a collection of hardware and software components and their interfaces to establish the framework for the development of a computer system.' This framework is established by examining the software requirements document and designing a model for providing implementation details. These details are used to specify the components of the system along with their inputs, outputs, functions, and the interaction between them. An architectural design performs the following functions.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Data design is the first design activity, which results in less complex, modular and efficient program structure. The information domain model developed during analysis phase is transformed into data structures needed for implementing the software. The data objects, attributes, and relationships depicted in entity relationship diagrams and the information stored in data dictionary provide a base for data design activity. During the data design process, data types are specified along with the integrity rules required for the data. For specifying and designing efficient data structures, some principles should be followed. These principles are listed below.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Once the requirements document for the software to be developed is available, the software design phase begins. While the requirement specification activity deals entirely with the problem domain, design is the first phase of transforming the problem into a solution. In the design phase, the customer and business requirements and technical considerations all come together to formulate a product or a system.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Several tools are used in the organizations to define and document requirements. These tools differ from each other in their features, capabilities, and goals. These distinct characteristics provide a foundation to select and customize tools for different software projects. Some of the commonly used requirements tools are listed in Table.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Once a system has been deployed, new requirements inevitably emerge. It is difficult for the users to anticipate the effect of these new requirements (if a new system is developed for these requirements) on the organization. Thus, to understand and control changes to system requirements, requirements management is performed.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

The development of software begins once the requirements document is 'ready'. One of the objectives of this document is to check whether the delivered software system is acceptable. For this, it is necessary to ensure that the requirements specification contains no errors and that it specifies the user's requirements correctly. Also, errors present in the SRS will adversely affect the cost if they are detected later in the development process or when the software is delivered to the user. Hence, it is desirable to detect errors in the requirements before the design and development of the software begins. To check all the issues related to requirements, requirements validation is performed.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

The output of the requirements phase of the software development process is Software Requirements Specification (SRS) (also known as requirements document). This document lays a foundation for software engineering activities and is created when entire requirements are elicited and analyzed. SRS is a formal document, which acts as a representation of software that enables the users to review whether it (SRS) is according to their requirements. In addition, it includes user requirements for a system as well as detailed specifications of the system requirements.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

It has been observed that the software engineer 'reuses' certain functions, classes, and/ or behavior across all the projects, which mayor may not form a part of the specific application domain. For example, features and functions described by a user interface are almost common, regardless of the application domain chosen. Analysis patterns refer to classes, functions, and other features that can be reused when developing applications within a specific application domain. The objectives of analysis patterns are listed below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

IEEE defines requirements analysis as (1) the process of studying user needs to arrive at a definition of a system, hardware or software requirements. (2) The process of studying and refining system, hardware or software requirements.' Requirements analysis helps to understand, interpret, classify, and organize the software requirements in order to assess the feasibility, completeness, and consistency of the requirements. Various other tasks performed using requirements analysis are listed below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Requirements elicitation (also known as requirements capture and requirements acquisition) is a process of collecting information about software requirementsfrom different individuals such as users and other stakeholders. Stakeholders areindividuals who are affected by the system, directly or indirectly. They includeproject mangers, marketing personnel, consultants, software engineers,maintenance engineers, and the user.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Feasibility is defined as the practical extent to which a project can be performed successfully. To evaluate feasibility, a feasibility study is performed, which determines whether the solution considered to accomplish the requirements is practical and workable in the software. Information such as resource availability, cost estimation for software development, benefits of the software to the organization after it is developed and cost to be incurred on its maintenance are considered during the feasibility study. The objective of the feasibility study is to establish the reasons for developing the software that is acceptable to users, adaptable to change and conformable to established standards. Various other objectives of feasibility study are listed below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

In the software development process, requirement phase is the first software engineering activity. This phase is a user-dominated phase and translates the ideas or views into a requirements document. Note that defining and documenting the user requirements in a concise and unambiguous manner is the first major step to achieve a high-quality product.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Quantitative Process Management (QPM) aims to control the process performance (the actual output accomplished by following the software process) of the software project quantitatively. The quantitative process management establishes goals for the performance of the project's software process. It involves measuring the performance of software process, analyzing these measurements, and making adjustments in maintaining the performance of the process. After the performance of the process is stable and within acceptable limits, the software process of the project and the associated measurements are established as a baseline. This results in controlling the performance of the software process quantitatively. The goals of quantitative process management are listed below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Software Engineering

Changes in the process are unavoidable and should be made to improve the productivity and quality of the process. These changes can be applied by using Process Change Management (PCM), which is a technique to improve the software processes in the organization. Thus, this technique helps in increasing productivity and quality by improving software processes for the developing software.

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.