by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Boot Sector The first sector on a FLOPPY DISK or HARDDISK formatted for the MS-DOS operating system, which records the number of HEADS,CYLINDERS and SECTORS per cylinder used on that disk. This information is needed by the disk controller to access data on the drive, and the boot sector is located at head 0, cylinder 0, sector 0, so the controller can always find it regardless of how the drive is formatted. Other operating systems such as UNIX also reserve a special sector for such initialization information, but it is typically in a different form, so one operating system can rarely boot from another's disk.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) The most popular fabrication process for modern INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, which employs LOGIC GATES made out of complementary pairs of FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS called the P-CHANNEL and N-CHANNEL respectively. The p-channel transistor is made within a well of n-type silicon, while the n-channel is made directly in the doped silicon SUBSTRATE. These two transistors are arranged so that a current flows only momentarily while the gate is switching, and none flows in its on or off states, which enormously reduces power consumption as compared with older BIPOLAR processes. It is this benign property that permits the phenomenal improvement in chip performance over recent decades that is referred to as MOORE'S LAW.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

A microprocessor is a single chip that is the central processing unit, or the brains of a computer. To function as a complete computer, it also needs memory, a clock) and a power supply. Well, a computer on a chip has its own built-in clock and its own memory, so all it needs is a power supply to function. These tiny things are used in all kinds of things, from car parts to children's toys.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

You have probably heard of printer ports and modem ports and perhaps ADB ports or some other kind of port. A port is a plug, or receptacle (known in other computer dictionaries as an input/output connector). Once you insert one end of a cable into a port, information can flow between your computer and whatever device is attached to the other end of the cable.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Boot Sector Virus: A computer VIRUS program that hides its code within the BOOT SECTOR of a FLOPPYDISK, so that the virus code is executed before the operating system itself has loaded, making countermeasures difficult to apply. Once loaded into memory, such a virus infects the boot sectors of any other floppy disk that is placed in the drive, hence ensuring its spread.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

A serial port is the socket (also known as an "input/output connector") where you plug in the cables to attach to a serial device, such as a printer or modem.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Bleed refers to any element on a page that is printed beyond the edge of the paper. Whenever you see anything (text, graphics, photographs) that is printed right up to the edge of the paper, it was actually printed onto larger paper over the margin guidelines, and the paper was trimmed.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

(Dual In-line Memory Module) A small PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD with RAM chips mounted on both sides and a single edge connector, via which it can be plugged into a computer MOTHER BOARAD. DIMM differs from a SIMM in that the chips on either side have separate pins on the edge connector, permitting a wider 128-bit data path for faster access to the memory; hence they tend to be used in more expensive systems like servers.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

1.Most generally, the range of values within which an ADDRESS has meaning and can be guaranteed to be unique. In everyday life, for example, each street constitutes a separate address space so that the same number, 12, might be used to describe different houses in Acacia Avenue and Laburnum Grove.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

A cluster is the smallest single unit of the space on a disk (a hard disk or a floppy or even an optical disc) that your computer's operating system keeps track of separately. The operating system keeps systematic records of which clusters are occupied by each file stored on the disk (in DOS, this is called the file allocation table, or FAT). Clusters usually consist of more than one sector, a sector being the smallest unit of disk space that the computer can read data from or write data on. There are too many sectors on a hard disk to keep track of them all individually, so the operating system deals with them in groups called clusters instead.



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.



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