by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Boot Sector The first sector on a FLOPPY DISK or HARDDISK formatted for the MS-DOS operating system, which records the number of HEADS,CYLINDERS and SECTORS per cylinder used on that disk. This information is needed by the disk controller to access data on the drive, and the boot sector is located at head 0, cylinder 0, sector 0, so the controller can always find it regardless of how the drive is formatted. Other operating systems such as UNIX also reserve a special sector for such initialization information, but it is typically in a different form, so one operating system can rarely boot from another's disk.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Boot Drive: The disk drive of a computer system from which the operating system is loaded when the computer is first started up. Many operating systems allow the identity of this drive to be altered: for example on IBM compatible pcs it is determined by a setting in the machine's BIOS parameter area.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Biometrics: The measurement of parts of a person's body, for example fingerprints, voice timbre or unique patterns in the iris of the eye, to identify the person for security purposes. Computers can now process such data sufficiently fast for biometric methods to be used in real time as keys to gain access to a system. For example, when a finger is placed on a scanning pad, the print is immediately compared with one stored in a database of authorized persons.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

The B word. If something is wrong with a piece of software or hardware so that it stops working or destroys your data or just acts weird, the product is said to have a bug, or to be buggy. The term actually comes down to us from the real live crawling and flying bugs that used to get into those old giant-sized computers .

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Bleed refers to any element on a page that is printed beyond the edge of the paper. Whenever you see anything (text, graphics, photographs) that is printed right up to the edge of the paper, it was actually printed onto larger paper over the margin guidelines, and the paper was trimmed.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Computer products go through extensive testing before they can be released to the unsuspecting and trusting public. When a product has passed the in-house testing stage (see alpha testing), it goes into beta testing, often just called beta. Beta versions of the product are sent out for beta testing to "normal" people who don't work for the company. (These people are then, logically, called beta testers or beta sites.) The beta testers work with the software or hardware in real-life situations and report back the things that go wrong or that need improvement.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Beep is the generic term for whatever sound a computer makes when it's trying to tell you something. If you press the wrong key or click on something you shouldn't, the computer will beep at you. Sometimes it beeps just to let you know that it has started or finished doing something (like copying a file). You can customize the beep sound in some computers. In particular, newer Macs and pcs with Windows 3.1 come with several sounds you can assign to various types of "events" in the system. Hundreds can be added, and you can even make your own sounds.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow between two points in a certain period of time. The "broader" the bandwidth, the faster the information flow. You can use the term to describe how quickly information moves from the hard disk into memory, or from the computer to an add-in board on the expansion bus, or from one modem to another across a telephone line. Depending on whether the transmission is digital or analog, the rate is measured in bits per second (bps) or in hertz (cycles per second).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Seek Time refers to how long it takes the read/ write head on a hard disk to move from one track to another. Technically, seek time is only one factor affecting "average" access time, and is not the same as access time. Because it sounds faster, certain disk vendors may try to woo you by quoting seek time specifications for their disks, but you should really base your comparisons on average access time.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Automated Teller Machine (ATM) Also called a CASH POINT, a combined computer terminal and cash dispensing machine connected via a WAN to a bank's central computers, that enables customers to make cash withdrawals and inspect account details from public sites such as streets, airports, shops and petrol stations. ATMs typically provide a small display screen that presents menus to the user, surrounded by a small number of buttons to make menu selections, and a numeric keypad for entering the customer's PIN number - the latter is checked against that stored on the customer's cash card, which must be inserted into a slot as a means of AUTHENTICATION.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Application Program

Application Program: Applications programs are programs written to solve specific problems, to produce specific reports, or to update specific files. A computer program that performs useful work on behalf of the user of the computer (for example a word processing or accounting program) as opposed to the SYSTEM SOFTWARE which manages the running of the computer itself, or to the DEVELOPMEN software which is used by programmers to create other programs.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

1.Most generally, the range of values within which an ADDRESS has meaning and can be guaranteed to be unique. In everyday life, for example, each street constitutes a separate address space so that the same number, 12, might be used to describe different houses in Acacia Avenue and Laburnum Grove.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Machine language is generally referred to as first-generation language, assembly language is known as second-generation language, and high-level languages such as C, C++, Java, etc., are called third-generation languages.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Artificial intelligence (AI) A branch of computer science that was pursued with great optimism in the 1960s and 70S, in an attempt to make computers think more like human beings. It analyzes data and draw conclusions in a way that makes them appear to be "intelligent." Now of course, computers can't think or do anything without being told what to do. So AI programs use complex formulas which attempt to arrive at an answer in a method similar to how a human might do it.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Similar to the architecture of a building, the architecture of a computer refers to the design structure of the computer system and all its details: the system, the circuits, the chips, the busses, the expansion slots, the system firmware, BIOS, etc. The architecture largely determines how fast the computer is and what it can do. It also decides whether one computer is compatible with another. Can the same boards be used? Yes, if the architecture is compatible. Different models will have basically the same uses, but with varying degrees of performance. The architecture is what ensures backward compatibility, which means that your old software can run on a new computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

There are several varieties of computer programs, but the ones most of us are familiar with are the application software. An application is software with a specific use, such as writing, dealing with numbers, organizing large amounts of data, etc. Popular types of applications software include word processors, database managers, spreadsheets, graphics applications, money managers, and games. Other types of computer software include utilities (programs designed to tune the performance of the computer), and system software (basic programs, such as DOS , windows ,UNIX , Linux , MAC which are required to operate the PC).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

If there is too much static electricity hanging around, it can actually disrupt your computer, causing the screen to freeze or creating various other unpleasant disturbances that can destroy data. Static can even destroy the circuits inside your computer. Extra static can develop from the weather or from certain kinds of clothing or from activities like petting your cat while working on your computer, shuffling around on the carpet, or rubbing a balloon on your head. So a variety of antistatic devices have been developed to help prevent this, devices such as wrist bands, floor mats, sprays, and little metal pads that say "Touch Me."



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

ANSI.SYS (pronounced "ansee dot sis") is a driver file a little software module, or controller used by MSDOS and OS/2, ANSI.SYS tells the computer how to display information based on the standard codes adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Each code in the ANSI table represents either a character (like the letter S) or a number (such as the number 5), and other keys found on the keyboard (such as the Enter key). Some codes in the table are not found on the keyboard, but programs use them for specific purposes (such as making the PC beep, or moving the cursor to the next line on-screen).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

ANSI is the acronym for the American National Standards Institute. This institute creates standards for a wide variety of industries, including computer programming languages. ANSI standards currently exist for vast numbers of such seemingly unrelated items as refrigerators, industrial carpet, mayonnaise, and computer parts, among others.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Terms

Analog is the opposite of digital, and I can only explain analog in relation to digital. Analog refers to things that are in a continuous flow or that have an infinite number of values-things that are "analogous" to real life.

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.



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