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by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

   The Industry Standard Architecture or ISA (Pronounced as separate letters or as eye-sa) bus began as part of IBM's revolutionary PC/XT and PC/AT released in 1981. However, it was officially recognized as "ISA" in 1987 when the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) formally documented standards governing its 16-bit implementation. AT version of the bus is called the AT bus and became a de facto industry standard.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

The successful general purpose mechanical computers were developed. In 1930, mechanical calculations were built for automatic addition, subtraction, multiplication & division. A calculator is not a programmable device. The different eras of the Evolution of Digital Computers are listed below:

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

A computer is a machine that can handle and manipulate data in accordance with the instructions, and is also able to generate visible results on a screen or monitor. Different computer do different kinds of work, a small computer that has been designed to be used by one person, at home or in an office. It is often simply called a PC. 

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

    The Processor Cache is memory that store data (code, commands etc.). it is used with the processor to facilitate the access of data from the system's main memory or RAM. Processor Cache reduces the average time to access memory. The processor cache typically consists of two levels, which are the L1 cache and the L2 cache.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

A Laptop computer (also called portable computerornotebook computerin English) (Other terms, such as ultrabook or netbook, refer to specific types of laptop) is designed with portability in mind. It was developed in the late 1980s. It is briefcase style with a foldout screen with a clamshell form factor, suitable for mobile use and with a miniature keyboard. It is small enough to use in your lap. The laptop is battery or AC-powered personal computer that should be charged via a plug and socket, and when it runs out of power, it must be recharged regularly.    

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer


Semiconductors are widely used in electronics to make components such as diodes, transistors, thyristors, integrated circuits as well as semiconductor lasers.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

The terms Micro Channel, Micro Channel architecture, or just MCA, all refer to the same thing: a kind of expansion bus used in PCs. MCA was a distinct break from previous bus architectures such as Industry Standard Architecture. The pin connections in MCA are smaller than other bus interfaces. For this and other reasons, MCA does not support other bus architectures. Although MCA offers a number of improvements over other bus architectures, its proprietary, nonstandard aspects did not encourage other manufacturers to adopt it.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer

Extended Industry Standard Architecture(in practice almost always shortened to EISA and frequently pronounced "eee-suh") that extends the ISA standard to a 32-bit interface. It was developed in part as an open alternative to the proprietary "Micro Channel Architecture (MCA)" that IBM introduced in its PS/2 computers. It is a bus standard for IBM compatible computers. It was announced in late 1988 by PC clone vendors as a counter to IBM's use of its proprietary Micro channel Architecture (MCA) in its PS/2 series.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer


The concept ofnetbook is notso farfromits portabledesign, butit is lighterand thinner, and limited storage thana laptop.Netbooksare likephysicalpaperbook; its design isjust like alaptop. Hisnamealsoreflects itsmain purpose: NetsynonymousEnglishInternetandbookfor"book", in short, the book for the Internet. The termnetbookpromoted byIntel.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Introduction to Computer


ThetermUltrabook, what do they reallymean? The ultrabook is a new Intel-defined format. Basically it isa new wayof callingnotebooksorlaptops, to differentiatea littleoceanof varieties available. Unlikenetbooksthat are smallerbut alsoless powerful, ultrabooksoffer virtuallythe same comfortas laptops.


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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular Computer Notes blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to contact us.

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