The operating system provides set functions to create, synchronize, control, execute the processes on the system. In the earlier time when the operating system was not available then every program required full hardware access or time for execution. To overcome this problem and used the CPU efficiently, the operating system introduced.
By the early 1950’s, the General Motors Research Laboratories implemented the first Single-Stream batch processing systems. It ran a single job at a time and data were submitted in the form of groups or batches. Batch operating system overcomes the problem of setup time.
Batch Operating System: the First operating system of the second-generation computer is the batch operating system. Batch operating system took the input on the punch card. Each punch card had the different form of data. System executed the jobs one by one in batch. When one job from the batch executed, then the second job has taken from it and so on. The process of placing the jobs in queue for execution is known as spooling.
How its work: OS keeps the number of jobs in memory and executes them one by one. Jobs processed in first come first served order. Each set of a job considered as a batch. When a job completes its execution, its memory is released, and the output for the job gets copied into an output spool for later printing or processing. User interaction in the batch processing system is minimal. One’s system accepts the jobs from users, and then the user is free. That is why we can use batch processing system in large organizations in these days.
The batch processing system used where we want to update the data related to any transactions or any record. Transactions can be related to any customer orders, receipts, invoices, payments, online transactions, data entry, payroll system, banks etc.
1) Same jobs in the batch are higher executed speed.
2) A process is complete its execution, next job from job spool get executed without any user interaction.
3) CPU utilization gets improved.
4) To speed up the processing speed, the batch process can partition into the number of processes.
1) Difficult to debug.
2) If a job gets to enter in an infinite loop, other jobs wait for unknown time.
3) Batch systems are costly.