by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Definition: Memory segmentation is the process in which we divide the primary memory of the computer into segments. It is a memory management technique. Each segment can be allocated to a process.
The segment table is the table which stores all the details about the segments which are further stored in one of the segments. Segment table contains two information about the segment: one is, the base address of the segment and other is, the length of the segment.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

Definition: Priority Scheduling is a scheduling process which is based on priority. In priority scheduling, the scheduler himself chooses the task priority, and the process which has the highest priority is processed first as compared to other processes.

Example: Shortest Job First (SJF) scheduling

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Operating System

DefinitionPreemptive Scheduling is defined as the scheduling which is done when the process changes from running state to ready state or from waiting for the state to ready state. In this, the resources are allocated to execute the process for a certain period. After this, the process is taken away in the middle and is placed in the ready queue its bursts time is left and this process will stay in ready line until it gets its turn to execute.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

EBCDIC(pronounced "ebb see dick") is short for extended binary coded decimal interchange code is eight bits, or one byte, wide. This is a coding system used to represent characters-letters, numerals, punctuation marks, and other symbols in computerized text. A character is represented in EBCDIC by eight bit. EBCDIC mainly used on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems. Each byte consists of two nibbles, each four bits wide. The first four bits define the class of character, while the second nibble defines the specific character inside that class.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

ASCII : ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. ASCII, pronounced "ask-ee" is the acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It's a set of characters which, unlike the characters in word processing documents, allow no special formatting like different fonts, bold, underlined or italic text. ASCII is computer code for the interchange of information between terminals.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Meaning of BCD – "Binary Coded Decimal", is a method that use binary digits 0 which represent “off” and 1 which represent “on”. BCD has been in use since the first UNIVAC computer. Each digit is called a bit. Four bits are called a nibble and is used to represent each decimal digit (0 through 9).



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Bit is short for Binary digit. A bit is a single digit, either a 1 or a 0, and it is the fundamental unit of information in computing, communications and physics. Binary numbers (bits) are stored within a computer's microchips by turning an electrical current "on" or "off"; a 1 is represented by an "on" or high voltage current, and a 0 is represented by an "off" or low current.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

ASCII Stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (pronounced 'as-key').  This is a standard set of characters understood by all computers, consisting mostly of letters and numbers plus a few basic symbols such as $ and %. Which employs the 128 possible 7-bit integers to encode the 52 uppercase and lowercase letters and 10 numeric digits of the Roman alphabet, plus punctuation characters and some other symbols. The fact that almost everyone agrees on ASCII makes it relatively easy to exchange information between different programs, different operating systems, and even different computers.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

What is RAM (pronounced as raem), Ram full form " random access memory " and is volatile. First we'll tell you what RAM memory alternatively referred to as main memory, primary memory, or system memory, Random Access Memory (RAM) in a computer system, it is also sometimes known as read-write memory or RWM, then we'll go over how RAM works in Macintoshes and pcs. Also, there are different kinds of RAM, including VRAM, PRAM, DRAM and SRAM 



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

The binary system is a method for working with numbers based on only two digits: 1 and 0 (binary is also known as "base two"). Binary numbers are the basis for computer storage. Input into the computer is changed into binary numbers that the computer can store and manipulate. A binary numbering system uses a series of 1's and 0's to represent any number. Non-numbers (such as the letter D) or characters (such as a question mark) are assigned an eight digit binary number so that they too can be represented within the computer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

A byte is a group of eight bits. Bit, short for Binary digit,which can represent any number in the range 00000000 To 11111111 Binary, or 0 To 255 Decimal. From the early days of digital computing, it is the basic unit of information within a computer, equal to a 1 or a 0. It is used to measure both memory size (Kilobytes, Megabytes) and data transfer speed (Kilobytes per second). Eight individual electronic on/off signals, strung together to make a message that the computer can interpret. Bits are stored within the computer's microchips and are led by control the flow of electrical currents; a 1 is represented by an "on" or high voltage electrical current, and a 0 is represented by an "off" or low current. A byte is formed by combining eight bits together to store the equivalent of one character. For example, the letter A (a single byte) is made up of the eight bits 01000001.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Most computer operations involve manipulation of data stored in various memories. The smallest unit of computer memory is called a bit. When a bit is set its value is taken to be equal to 1 and when it is reset its value is taken to be 0. Thus, a bit can have one of the two values, i.e., 0 or 1. In electronics, memory circuits are called flip-flops. A flip-flop is the name given to a memory circuit which behaves in a manner similar to a switch. When a switch is set on, there is high voltage at its output and it remains on till it is reset ill which case the voltage at its output terminal becomes 0. Similarly, when a flip-flop is set its value is taken as 1 and when it is reset its value becomes 0. One flip-flop represents one bit of memory. The output state can be manipulated according to the input signal to the flip-flop. Since bits are extremely small units of memory, in computer programs we often deal with groups of bits. A group of 8 bits is called a byte.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Number System

Computer is a collection of digital electronic circuits in which the memory circuits play a major role. The input to as well as outputs from the microprocessor are all expressed in terms of voltages applied on the specified set of terminals meant for input and outputs, respectively. We may code the high value of voltage (typical value 5 V) as 1 and low value of voltage (typical value 0) as 0. Thus, an instruction to the microprocessor of the computer may be represented as a sequence of 0s and 1s (ones and zeros), such as 11001001. These ones and zeros are electronic signals that tell the computer what to do. In fact, microprocessors are designed to carry out a large number of instructions. The manufacturers supply the set of instructions and their respective codes.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information Technology

The words Data and Information may look similar and many people use these words very frequently, But both have lots of differences between them.

what is data: Data are plain facts. The word "data" is plural for "datum." When data are processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make them useful, they are called Information.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information Technology

Information technology is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. It is the capability to electronically input, process, store, output, transmit and receive data and information, including text, graphics, sound and video as well as the ability to control machines of all kinds electronically.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information Technology

Transaction Processing System (TPS) : Organizations perform routine, repetitive tasks. For example employees are paid at regular intervals, customers place purchase orders and are billed and expenses are monitored and compared to budgets.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Information Technology

Personal Issues : An increase in work load and / or responsibilities can trigger job stress. Many employees feel information anxiety because other people are better than they in using computers, because they are slow in learning new technology and because of the need to continuously learn new things.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

DBMS A database management system is the software system that allows users to define, create and maintain a database and provides controlled access to the data.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is basically a collection of programs that enables users to store, modify, and extract information from a database as per the requirements. DBMS is an intermediate layer between programs and the data. Programs access the DBMS, which then accesses the data. There are different types of DBMS ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. The following are main examples of database applications:



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

The entity set which does not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key is called as Weak entity set. An entity set that has a primary key is called as Strong entity set. Consider an entity set Payment which has three attributes: payment_number, payment_date and payment_amount. Although each payment entity is distinct but payment for different loans may share the same payment number. Thus, this entity set does not have a primary key and it is an entity set. Each weak set must be a part of one-to-many relationship set.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: DBMS & RDBMS

A typical structure of a DBMS with its components and relationships between them is show. The DBMS software is partitioned into several modules. Each module or component is assigned a specific operation to perform. Some of the functions of the DBMS are supported by operating systems (OS) to provide basic services and DBMS is built on top of it. The physical data and system catalog are stored on a physical disk. Access to the disk is controlled primarily by as, which schedules disk input/output. Therefore, while designing a DBMS its interface with the as must be taken into account.



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.