The two different computer network connection types are
(A) Point-to-Point Connection
(B) Multipoint Connection.
A point-to-point connection is a direct link between two devices such as a computer and a printer. It uses dedicated link between the devices. The entire capacity of the link is used for the transmission between those two devices. Most of today's point-to-point connections are associated with modems and PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) communications. In point to point networks, there exist many connections between individual pairs of machines.
To move from sources to destination, a packet (short message) may follow different routes. In networking, the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol commonly used in establishing a direct connection between two networking nodes. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption, and compression PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable, phone line, trunk line, cellular telephone, specialized radio links, and fiber optic links such as SONET. PPP is also used over Internet access connections (now marketed as "broadband").
Internet service providers (ISPs) have used PPP for customer dial-up access to the Internet, since IP packets cannot be transmitted over a modem line on their own, without some data link protocol. Two encapsulated forms of PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM (PPPoA), are used most commonly by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to establish a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Internet service connection with customers.
PPP is commonly used as a data link layer protocol for connection over synchronous and asynchronous circuits, where it has largely superseded the older Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and telephone company mandated standards (such as Link Access Protocol, Balanced (LAPB) in the X.25 protocol suite). PPP was designed to work with numerous network layer protocols, including Internet Protocol (IP), TRILL, Novell's Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), NBF and AppleTalk.
B) Multipoint Connection.
A multipoint connection is a link between three or more devices. It is also known as Multi-drop configuration. The networks havjng multipoint configuration are called Broadcast Networks. In broadcast network, a message or a packet sent by any machine is received by all other machines in a network. The packet contains address field that specifies the receiver. Upon receiving a packet, every machine checks the address field of the packet. If the transmitted packet is for that particular machine, it processes it; otherwise it just ignores the packet.
Broadcast network provides the provision for broadcasting & multicasting. Broadcasting is the process in which a single packet is received and processed by all the machines in the network. It is made possible by using a special code in the address field of the packet. When a packet is sent to a subset of the machines i.e. only to few machines in the network it is known as multicasting. Historically, multipoint connections were used to attach central CPs to distributed dumb terminals. In today's LAN environments, multipoint connections link many network devices in various configurations.