by Dinesh Thakur

As the Internet is a network of networks, addressing, is particularly important. This section provides an initial overview of the addressing problems through the first generation IP protocol IPv4 and IPv6 new generation.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

In a computer that allows indirect addressing, the assembly language programmer typically indicates an indirect address by adding a character such as * to the absolute or symbolic address, or by enclosing it in parentheses.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Application Service Provider (ASP): A company that rents out the use of software running on its own SERVERS to remote customers, who may use a THIN CLIENT technology such as CITRIX WINFRAME or a PC and a web-based connection to log on to the service: the viability of such services depends upon the availability of a BROADBAND connection from client to server.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Internet's basic protocol called IP for Internet Protocol. The objective of starting this protocol is assigned to interconnect networks do not have the same frame-level protocols or package level. The internet acronym comes from inter-networking and corresponds to an interconnection fashion: each independent network must transport in the weft or in the data area of the packet an IP packet, as shown in Figure.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

IPV6 is also known as IPng (Internetworking Protocol, next generation). The numbers of users of the internet are increasing day by day and the services offered to these users are also increasing. A huge number of addresses are needed to accommodate such vast number of hosts. The internet not only transmits textual data. It also allows us to transmit audio and video data. In such data, the high speed data transfer is desired. Internet working protocol version 6 (IPv6) was developed to overcome the shortcomings of IPv4.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

• The fast growth of Internet led to the near depletion of the available addresses.

• We have run out of class A and B addresses, and a class C block is too small for most midsize organizations.

• To overcome the problem of address depletion and give more organizations access to internet, classess addressing was designed and implemented.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

• Supernetting is an addressing scheme in which several class C blocks can be combined to create a larger range of addresses.

• In other words, several networks are combined to create a supernetwork or a supernet.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

• Subnet mask uses the same format and representation technique as IP addresses.

• Subnet mask has binary is in all bits specifying the network and subnetwork fields, and binary Os in all bits specifying the host field.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

• IP addressing supports five different address classes: A, B, C, D and E. Only classes A, Band C are available for commercial use.

• We can find the class of an address when given the address in binary notation or dotted decimal notation.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In order to provide computer to computer communication via Internet, we need a global addressing scheme. Such an addressing is provided by Internet Protocol (IP) at the network layer.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The process of subnetting involves dividing a network up into smaller networks called subnets or sub networks. Each of these subnets has its own specific address. To create these additional networks we use a subnet mask. The subnet mask simply determines which portion of the IP address belongs to the host. The subnet address is created by dividing the host address into network address and host address.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In a local area network (LAN) or other network, the MAC (Media Access Control) address is your computer's unique hardware number. (On an Ethernet LAN, it's the same as your Ethernet address.)



 
by Dinesh Thakur

An IP address is equivalent to your postal address and just like the mail service, each computer has an address so that it will only receive the information that is send by someone else.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

An IP address is considered public if the IP number is valid and falls outside any of the IP address ranges reserved for private uses by Internet standards group. Public IP addresses are used by servers (including those for Web sites and DNS servers), network routers or any computer connected directly to the Internet via a modem.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A Computer with multiple IP addresses to connected networks is known as Multihomed. A multihomed host is physically connected to multiple data links that can be on the same or different networks. For example, a computer with a Windows 2003 Server and multiple IP addresses can be referred to as "multihomed" and may serve as an IP router.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Internet protocol Version 4 (IPv4): Internet protocol is glue that holds the internet together. It transfers the datagrams from source to destination without considering that whether the machines are on the same network or not. IP is the main transport mechanism used by TCP/IP suit of protocols. IP provides connectionless, unreliable services.