Today, hundreds of major companies market TCP / IP products. It is they who decide the placing on the market of new technology, not the researchers, as originally. The governance of the Internet has been completely redesigned in the late 2000s Authority over the Internet central coordination functions exercised by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). In fact, it’s Jon Postel who held that office until his death in 1998. Today it is ICANN performs that function.
ICANN (ICANN) is a non-profit organization based in California. Its main tasks are the allocation of IP address ranges environment, selecting the parameters of the protocols used, the management of the DNS (Domain Name System) and management of the root node American. Note that there is a second Internet, independent of that managed by ICANN, and is the Chinese Internet, with its own root node. Europeans strongly considering also set up their own Internet network with a root node in Europe.
ICANN is governed by a board of directors composed of 20 members. At ICANN associated three organizations named SO (Supporting Organization), and advisory committees. The three organizations are responsible for SO missions on behalf of ICANN:
• DNSO (Domain Name SO) deals with issues related to domain names;
• ASO (Address SO) supports IP address management;
• PSO (SO Protocol) addresses of Internet protocols.
Advisory committees are:
• Government Advisory Committee
• Root Server System Advisory Committee
• Budget Advisory Group
• Membership Implementation Task Force
• At-Large Study Committee Member
We detail here the PSO, who takes care of the technical part of the Internet. The PSO (Protocol Supporting Organization) aims to submit to the Board of ICANN opinions and recommendations on all matters relating to the protocols used on the Internet, technical standards allowing for end devices to exchange information and manage Internet communications. The signatories of the PSO establishment decree are the IETF, the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium), ITU, ETSI and ICANN.
Four agencies are included in the PSO:
• IAB (Internet Activities Board)
• Internet Society (ISOC)
• IESG (Internet Engineering Steering Group
The IETF is a group of individuals which meets three times a year to contribute to the development and evolution of the Internet. Its mission is to provide solutions to technical problems, formalizing the solutions, the wear to the IESG for standardization of protocols and their use on the Internet and be a forum for discussion. The IETF is not a standardization organization in the classic sense, since everyone can participate and there is no representation of official standards bodies. However, its specifications become standards.
The first IETF meeting held in January 1986 in San Diego. Only 15 people participate. The fourth meeting of the IETF, also in California, in October 1986, is the first to welcome foreign participants. The concept of the working groups is introduced at the fifth meeting, always held in California in February 1987. The 100 participants is reached at the seventh meeting, held in Virginia in July 1987. In July 1989 during the fourteenth meeting, held Stanford, the IETF structure is significantly changed, with the separation of the IAB’s activities into two distinct poles: the IETF and IRTF (Internet Research Task Force), which is concerned with long research projects term. After the formation of ISOC in January 1992, the IAB passes under his authority.
The IAB aims to mediate and advise other agencies with an overview of the Internet architecture. It can also, as part of the procedure for defining Internet standards, hear appeals of decisions taken by the IESG. The IAB is responsible for selecting members of the IESG from among the nominees proposed by the IETF nominating committee.
The Internet Society (ISOC) is a professional association, is interested in the growth and evolution of the Internet in the world in social, political and technical. ISOC Managers should select the members of the IAB from among the nominees proposed by the IETF nominating committee.
The IESG oversees the technical work of the IETF and the process of defining standards. Depending on the ISOC, it applies the rules defined by the organization. The IESG is directly responsible for the definition of standards, from the selection of proposals to final validation.
Working documents, proposals and Internet standards are published in a series of technical reports called RFCs (The IETF standards documents are called RFC (Request for Comments)). These can cover specific or broad topics and to figure standards or only proposals.
The standards and documentation on the protocols can be obtained from the IETF website (www.ietf.org).
Each Internet protocol has a state and a status. The protocol status specifies the progress of standardization work:
• Initial (initial): The protocol is submitted for consideration.
• Proposed standard (proposed standard): the protocol is offered as standard and undergoes the initial procedure.
• Working standard (draft standard): the protocol after the initial screening and can be considered in his semi-final form. At least two implementations independent occurred. The document describing them is studied by the group of ad hoc work. Changes are often made before the final standard.
• Standard (standard): the examined protocol is accepted as a full standard. It is officially part of TCP / IP.
• Experimental (experimental): The protocol is not subject to standardization but still used in experiments.
• History (historic): The protocol is outdated and no longer used.
Normally the submitted protocols should be reviewed by the relevant working group of the IETF and by the organizations mentioned above with a formalization of an IAB status. The protocol status indicates the conditions under which the protocol must be used:
• Required (required): all machines and gateways must implement the protocol.
• Recommended (recommended): all machines and gateways are encouraged to implement the protocol.
• Optional (elective): you can choose to implement or not the protocol.
• Limited use (limited use): the protocol is not specified for use generally, as in the case of an investigational protocol.
• Not recommended (not recommended): the use of the protocol is not recommended, for example to an outdated protocol.
The table summarizes the main standards of the Internet world.