by Dinesh Thakur

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with what is considered right and wrong in society. It deals with issues which are not in the realm of legal or statutory domains but which may be considered conventionally right or wrong as per perception of the society of that time.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The concept of quality has changed over time. The awareness about quality started in the early half of the twentieth century but back then quality was considered more of a technical issue and the onus of quality was vested in a department, which was called quality control department. As the name of the department suggests; quality was a control issue, and hence statistical quality control techniques were developed to keep a 'control' over the quality. However, with time and with Japanese influence, this concept has changed.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

What is an Incident?

An incident in the parlance of information security is a security breach or even an attempt to breach security. An unsuccessful attempt to crack the security system is also an incident and needs to be investigated thoroughly.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

we are going to discuss about the threats and vulnerabilities of information systems from both insiders and outsiders and the ways of managing such threats and vulnerabilities.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The ISO/IEC 27001 definition of information defines information as an 'asset'. Therefore, information is something that has value and requires to be protected against theft or destruction. In order to protect information from theft or destruction, all counter measures that are taken come under the purview of Information security measures. Information security is therefore defined as all steps taken by the organization to protect its information and information systems. The steps may be technical or managerial in nature and may involve automation or manual controls.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Planning is the key to success in developing a good IS. IS planning brings to focus the reason for existence of the IS and helps the developers to undertake the task of development of IS in a structured manner. Organizations undertake planning for IS for several reasons. Typically IS, plans have a hierarchy with different levels of management handling different plans.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

One has to plan the information which the management information system will churn out for the different levels of management. The report structures, information flow, storage, information capture and its strategy, network, applications and security are all planned and designed before the system is created.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Strategic of information systems planning is explained below.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The degree of success of any information management initiative or intervention in an organization depends upon the approach of the management of the organization towards such an initiative. If the approach is short term and the benefits or objectives envisaged is too narrow, then the information system remains only of marginal value.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Several categories of IS and BS relationships exit. Primarily, such relationships indicate the extent of maturity of an organization in the use of IS. An organization that uses IS for bringing in efficiency in its business processes is looking at IS from a different prism than an organization that is looking at IS to provide it with insights on how to be more competitive. The organizations are at different levels of maturity.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Information systems when used for providing information to managers for their decision-making needs become a management information system. The goal of such information systems is to provide relevant information to management so that it helps in its functioning.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

McKinsey developed this model in the 1970's to determine the ease or ability of an organization to adapt to change. The primary focus of this model is on coordination. It is an excellent tool for self-diagnosis of problems by organization as it clearly bares the problem areas of the organization and highlights them. Even though it was proposed in the 1970's, it still has some use in today's ever changing organizations. The component elements of this model are:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

BCG Matrix is a simple tool. This tool is mostly used to understand and analyze business units and product lines. It was developed by Brucy Henderson of Boston Consulting Group. It is a powerful tool which can be used for resource allocation decisions in strategic management. Given below is a figure that represents the basic contours of a BCG matrix. This tool places business units/products/brands within four quadrants, based on their relative market share and market growth.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The subject of information management is however distinct from information technology, even though there is a lot of dependence on information technology to manage information.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Organizations use several types of information systems to suit their needs. The various types of information systems that an organization uses may be classified into the following categories:



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A modern manager is a person who does the most important task within an organization taking decisions. However, we can categorize his tasks among the categories of staffing, planning, controlling, organizing and leading. We would have to say that different managers at different levels spend different amounts of time and effort in each of these categories of activities.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The common thread of activity in all the management functions is information management. Every manager today has to manage loads of information some for the purpose of reporting and some for taking actionable decisions. A marketing manager trying to fine-tune a sales strategy would be doing it only after analyzing a lot of relevant information about the market, the customer profile, the product profile and competitor's pricing strategy.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

In order to understand the importance of MIS one must understand and appreciate the role that MIS plays in an organization. An organization may be conceived in a lot of ways. One can visualize an organization as a balance sheet or a function of financial statements, i.e., as a financial entity or as an organization chart delineating the decision-making hierarchy levels and formal communication channels. While both views are correct, the latter view is more appropriate for understanding an organization's MIS.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Information systems cannot deliver value from the first day in an organization. The organization needs time and maturity to be able to leverage the information system. Various organizations are at different levels of maturity in dealing with information systems. Nolan has provided a model for such information systems using maturity in organizations. However, empirical evidence is not available in favor of such models but intuitively, it seems correct. To leverage the benefits of information, an organization has to first appreciate the usefulness of information. This requires a change in the mindset and way of working. Organization culture needs to change to accommodate this kind of information-based working. Changing organizations takes time and hence, organizations pass through stages of maturity in dealing with information systems.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Information system is a special type of system that allows storage, retrieval and processing of data in a secure environment. Logically the major sub systems of information systems are:



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Management is the often unseen force that helps bind an entire organization and helps it to achieve its objectives by conducting the activities of planning, directing, organizing and controlling. In an organization the structure of management conforms to the pattern of a pyramidal structure (in most cases) with a well-defined hierarchy.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Systems approach is widely used in problem solving in different contexts. Researchers in the field of science and technology have used it for quite some time now. Business problems can also be analyzed and solved using this approach. The following steps are required for this:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Different types of systems exist. Some are abstract concepts while others are operational ones. Given below are different types and classes of systems:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Control is essential for monitoring the output of systems and is exercised by means of control loops. It is necessary for monitoring the desired output of a system with the actual output so that the performance of the system can be measured and corrective action taken if required. Schoderbek, 1985 mentions four elements required for effective control:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Systems have very specific common characteristics which help in its identification. They are:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

A special class of systems dealing with the storage, processing and delivery of information is of special significance to business and is called information systems. When these information systems aid the management in taking decisions, they are then broadly classified as management information systems. These are special systems with unique characteristics.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The systems approach is an old concept. The approach stands on the assumption that breaking down of a complex concept into simple easy to understand units helps in better understanding of the complexity. Ludwig von Bertalanffy first proposed the systems approach under the name of 'General System Theory'.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

For the better part of our productive life, most of us are a part of one organization or another. The organization that we are part of may be very structured, like the armed forces or corporate entities or it may be loosely structured like a neighborhood cricket team. Even though organizations may be of different types, they have some common characteristics like the existence of a common goal/mission towards which each member of the organization works for, a plan or an agenda to make the goal/mission a reality and the utilization of resources to achieve the goal.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Information and its use has become the competitive advantage of today's world. The efficiency with which a firm manages its information determines its success in the marketplace. This enormous power of information unleashed in today's world has brought down reaction times for decision-making of managers, made customers more aware, competitors more efficient and regulators more alert.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Information systems can be manual but the compulsions of competition in modern business makes information systems run on information technology platforms. Information technology is a term used to describe a set of technologies that includes technologies from the domain of computer science and engineering, networking, electronics and telecommunication and other such domains.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Information in an organization can be managed if the data that the organization generates by interacting regularly with its internal employees and external customers is managed. If the data about the transactions that the organization enters into with other entities is managed then information can also be managed to a large extent as most information is generated from the background transaction level data within the organization. Some information however, is dependent on external data that is not available within the organization.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Every manager today has to manage loads of information; some for the purpose of reporting and some for taking actionable decisions. The competitive environment that exists in today's time makes this task of management even more challenging. Today's managers have to work in an increasingly competitive globalize environment, in which the cost of a faulty decision in quite high. Hence, they rely more and more on data driven decision-making techniques rather than 'gut feeling'. The focus is very much on gaining understanding about an issue before jumping to take a decision. MIS fills this gap.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

From a managerial context the value of information is judged on the basis of the following parameters:



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The transformation process in certain sub-system, especially at the lowest level may not be defined. However, the inputs and outputs are known. Such a sub-system, whose processes are not defined, is called a black box system.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Information may be understood to have various dimensions. However, for our purpose, the following dimension of information will be of interest.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

An open system is one that interacts with its environment and thus exchanges information, material, or energy with the environment, including random and undefined inputs. Open systems are adaptive in nature as they tend to react with the environment in such a way organizing', in the sense that they change their continued existence.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A deterministic system is one in which the occurrence of all events is known with certainty. If the description of the system state at a particular point of time of its operation is given, the next state can be perfectly predicted.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Types of System :

Physical or Abstract : Physical system is tangible entities that may be static or dynamic in nature. Abstract system is conceptual or non-physical. The abstract is conceptualization of physical situations.