A problem with the Painter’s and Z-Buffer Algorithms is that they ignore the effects of the light source and use only the ambient light factor. Flat shading goes a bit further and includes the diffuse reflections as well. For each of the planar pieces, an intensity value is calculated from the surface normal, the direction to the light, and the ambient light and diffuse coefficient constants. Since none of these changes at any point on the piece, all of the pixels in that piece will have the same intensity value. The resulting image will appear to be faceted, with ridges running along the boundaries of the pieces that make up an object.
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