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by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

In general, a computer network composed of one or more servers, workstations, network interface cards, active and passive hub, routers, bridges, gateways, modem, software components like network operating systems, and other application software. The following components widely used for the construction of networks.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Shared Ethernet Networks implementing technical standard access to physical media by the IEEE 802.3 working group under the name MAC access (Medium Access Control). MAC uses a general technique called random access.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

The physical layer represents the first level of the hierarchy of the reference model. This level is responsible for transporting the bits on physical media varied. To access a support, use an access interface.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

The Optical Switches are used to connect optical links between them. At incoming optical fibers correspond outgoing optical fibers. If the switch uses an electrical part, the switch is said optoelectronics and not only optical. These switches are based on the interconnection of switching elements, that is to say, switches which have two input gates and two output ports as shown in Figure. Connected in series, these elementary switches allow making great switches.  The design of these devices, however, poses many problems.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

The idea at the basis of the wavelength routing network consists of maximum reuse the same wavelengths. The figure illustrates a node of a routing network wherein wavelengths of the same wavelength are used repeatedly.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

A Distributed computing is a model of computation that is firmly related to Distributed Systems, refers to as multiple computer systems located at different places linked together over a network and use to solve higher level computation without having to use an expensive supercomputer. Distributed system is called, When collection of various computers seems a single coherent system to its client, then it is called distributed system.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Broadcast: Any form of communication in which a single sender transmits messages to many receivers at once, the most familiar examples being the television and public radio systems. The opposite of broadcast is POINT-TO-POINT or narrowcast communication, between just a single transmitter and a single receiver - a telephone conversation for example. When such a multiple connection is made via a network cable as opposed to wireless, such communication is often called MULTIPOINT, as opposed to a point-to-point or UNICAST. Communication channel is shared by all the machines on the network in broadcast network.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

The acronym bps stands for bits per second, which is a measurement of how fast information (data) travels between two devices. When two modems converse via the telephone line, the speed of modem communications is measured in bps. (When people talk about modems, they often use the word "baud" to mean the same thing as bps, though technically the two terms are not synonymous.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

baud, baud rate A baud is the number of signaling elements per second sent by a communications device such as a modem, In theory, a modem with a high baud rate means fast transmission. The baud rate is therefore equal to the bit rate only if each signal element represents one bit of information.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Availability of different operating systems, hardware platforms and the geographical dispersion of the computing resources necessitated the need of networking in such a manner that computers of all sizes can communicate with each other, regardless of the vendor, the operating system, the hardware platform, or geographical proximity. Therefore, we may say that internetworking is a scheme for interconnecting multiple networks of dissimilar technologies. To interconnect multiple networks of dissimilar technologies use both additional hardware and software. This additional hardware is positioned between networks and software on each attached computer. Thus, system of interconnected networks is called an inter network or an Internet.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

A LAN Operating System, or Network Operating System (NOS), is software that provides the network with multi-user, multitasking capabilities. The operating system facilitates communications and resource sharing, thereby providing the basic framework for the operation of the LAN. The operating system consists of modules that are distributed throughout the LAN environment. Some NOS modules reside in servers, while other modules reside in the clients.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

TCP/IP encapsulate upper layers using headers for the purpose of exchanging control and status information about the progress of the communication because its protocols also engage in peer talk by encapsulating data with protocol headers before submitting it to the underlying layer for subsequent delivery to the network. The data communication using TCP/IP and Ethernet as it is passed down the layers by an application on node X to node Y across the network.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Protocol Definition: It is a digital language through which we communicate with others on the Internet. protocol meaning is that it a set of mutually accepted and implemented rules at both ends of the communications channel for the proper exchange of information. By adopting these rules, two devices can communicate with each other and can interchange information. We can't even think of using the Internet without Protocols. Each protocol is defined in different terms and different use with unique name. Message travel from sender to reciever via a medium (The medium is the physical path over which a message travels) using a protocol.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

The distinguishing feature of star topology is that all nodes are joined at a single point, as shown in Figure. This single point is called as a central node, hub, or switch, to which all other devices are attached directly, generally via UTP or STP. This topology is frequently used for networks in which control of the network is located in the central node. This method is optimal when the bulk of communication is between the central and outlying nodes. If traffic is high between outlying nodes, an undue switching burden is placed on the central node.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

The ring architecture is a distributed architecture, with minimal connectivity and a topology of two links connected to every node as shown in Figure and forms unbroken circular configuration. Figure shows a network laid out in a physical ring, or closed loop, configuration. Transmitted messages travel from node to node around the ring. Each node must be able to recognize its own address in order to accept messages.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

Bus Topology is multipoint electrical circuits that can be implemented using coaxial cable, UTP, or STP. Data transmission is bidirectional, with the attached devices transmitting in both directions. While generally operating at a raw data rate of 10 Mbps, actual throughput is much less.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

                   Point-to-point Connections

The point-to-point scheme provides separate communication channels for each pair of computers. When more than two computers need to communicate with one another, the number of connections grows very quickly as number of computer increases. Above figure illustrates that two computers need only one connection, three computers need three connections and four computers need six connections.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

The MAN network (Metropolitan Area Network) is a high-speed network (broadband) that covers larger geographic area such as city (tens of kilometers) or districts than local area network (LAN) but smaller than wide area network (WAN) and providing the ability to integrate multiple services through the transmission of data, voice, and video, on transmission media such as copper, fiber optics, and microwaves.

The term is applied to the single network such as a cable television network, or it can be a way of connecting a certain number of LANs in a more extensive network so that resources can share from LAN to LAN and from device to device. For example, a company can use a MAN to connect the LANs of all its offices scattered around the city. Local libraries and government agencies often use a MAN to connect to citizens and private industries. It may also connect MANs within a larger area than LAN. The geographical limit of a MAN may span a city.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

 Computer System Model

The term computer networks resulted from the 'combination of two major areas, namely computers and communications.



 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network

     Need For Computer Networks

The term network is defined as a set of computers of different types, terminals, telephones, and other communication equipments, connected by data communication links, which allow the network components to work together. The network components may be located within a small area or spread over many remote locations. In any case, data communications hold the network together.

 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.