The creation of programs to be executed by more than one processor at the same time. Parallel programming is more difficult than ordinary SEQUENTIAL programming because of the added problem of synchronization. A sequential program has only a single FLOW OF CONTROL and runs until it stops, whereas a parallel program spawns many CONCURRENT processes and the order in which they complete affects the overall result. [Read more…] about What is Parallel Programming?
Any computer program built by combining many self-contained software structures called OBJECTS, instead of writing a single long list of instructions. Objects have both properties and behaviour, which makes them powerful tools for modelling events and processes in the real world. Each object possesses its own private data describing its properties (e.g. ‘size’, ‘colour’) and also a collection of private subprograms, called METHODS (e.g. ‘print’, ‘display’, ‘move’) for manipulating that data. The set of methods that an object understands is called its INTERFACE, and is the only means by which one object is allowed to interact with other. [Read more…] about What is Object-Oriented?
(OOPL) A programming language specifically designed to support the writing of OBJECT-ORIENTED programs. Such languages typically support three features not found in traditional programming languages: CLASSES, ENCAPSULATION and INHERITANCE, though the actual constructs that embody these features may have different names in different languages. The first such OOPL to be invented was SIMULA, and the most widely used OOPL today is C++, which is a derivative of the C language with added object-oriented features. Other important OOPLs include JAVA, OBJECT PASCAL, EIFFEL, and the historically important SMALLTALK. [Read more…] about What is OOPL (Object oriented programming language)?
OOP stands for object-oriented programming, a relatively recent development in programming technology. In traditional computer programs, the procedures (the programming commands) that get things done are separated from the data they work on. By contrast, object -oriented programs are put together from building blocks called objects; each of these self-contained software modules includes all the commands and data needed to do a given set of tasks when it receives the right “messages.” Because it is “encapsulated” in this way, an object can be reused as a unit in as many programs as needed. By design, OOP makes it easy to generate new objects that automatically “inherit” the capabilities of existing objects. The programmer can then modify a function or two or add some new ones, but she doesn’t have to start from scratch. [Read more…] about What is OOP(object-oriented programming)?
An abstraction is a simplified description, or specification, of a system that focuses on some essential structure or behavior of a real-world or conceptual object. A good abstraction is one in which information that is significant to the user is emphasized while details that are immaterial, at least for the moment, are suppressed. We use the principles of information hiding to encapsulate these details. [Read more…] about Abstract Data Type – What is an Abstract Data Type (ADT)?
#define directive helps in creating constants which have no type information. This sets up an equivalence between an identifier and a text phrase. The syntax is #define v1 3.2
This should appear in the beginning of the program. It informs the compiler that the text V1 will be replaced by the text 3.2 in the entire program. However this directive is not used commonly.
Commonly used escape sequences are \n, \t and \a. The escape sequences are enclosed in single quotes. \n is a new line character and helps in transferring control to the next line. If more than one line is to be skipped, \n is repeated as many times as the number of lines to be skipped. \n can also be combined with any other message string to be displayed. \t is used for giving tab and \a is used for giving a beep. [Read more…] about Escape Sequences and Manipulators in c++
cin and cout are two predefined objects which represent standard input and output stream. The standard output stream represents the screen, while the standard input stream represents the keyboard. These objects are members of iostream class. Hence the header file <iostream.h> should be included in the beginning of all programs. [Read more…] about Input Output Statements in c++
C++ supports comment format which is indicated by a II sign before the comment. In this case, the comment can proceed only till the end of current line. In case it is required to extend the comment beyond the current line, the comments should be preceded by the II symbol on subsequent lines also. [Read more…] about Comments in C++
A combination of variables, constants and operators that represents a computation forms an expression. Depending upon the type of operands involved in an expression or the result obtained after evaluating expression, there are different categories of an expression. These categories of an expression are discussed here. [Read more…] about What is Expressions in C++?
A data type determines the type and the operations that can be performed on the data. C++ provides various data types and each data type is represented differently within the computer’s memory. The various data types provided by C++ are built-in data types, derived data types and user-defined data types as shown in Figure. [Read more…] about Data Types – Explain Data Type in C++.
In C++, input and output (I/O) operators are used to take input and display output. The operator used for taking the input is known as the extraction or get from operator (>>), while the operator used for displaying the output is known as the insertion or put to operator (<<). [Read more…] about Input/Output Operator in C++
Programs are a sequence of instructions or statements. These statements form the structure of a C++ program. C++ program structure is divided into various sections, namely, headers, class definition, member functions definitions and main function. [Read more…] about Structure of a C+ + Program
To develop software, the object-oriented concepts need to be implemented in any high-level language. The high-level language that implements the concepts of object-oriented programming is known as an object-oriented language (also called an OO language). In general, an object-oriented language must support all or some of these OO concepts. [Read more…] about Explain Various Type Object-Oriented Languages. Advantages and Applications of OOP