In this Python Operator tutorial, we will learn different types of operators in Python Programming Language, with their syntax and how to use them with examples.
Python Operator is a symbol (such as +, x, etc.) that represents an operation. An operation is an action or procedure which produces a new value from one or more input values called operands. There are two types of operators: unary and binary. The unary operator operates only on one operand, such as negation. On the other hand, the binary operator operates on two operands: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation operators, etc. Consider an expression 3+8, here 3 and 8 are called operands, while '+' is called an operator. The operators can also be categorized into:
• Python Arithmetic Operator
• Python Relational Operator
• Python Assignment Operator
• Python Logical Operator
• Python Membership Operator
• Python Identity Operator
• Python Bitwise Operator
Below Python arithmetic operators perform various arithmetic calculations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, %modulus, exponent, etc. Table enlists the arithematic operators with a short note on the operators.
Operator |
Description |
+ |
Addition operator- Add operands on either side of the operator. |
- |
Subtraction operator - Subtract right hand operand from left hand operand. |
* |
Multiplication operator - Multiply operands on either side of the operator. |
/ |
Division operator - Divide left hand operand by right hand operand. |
% |
Modulus operator - Divide left hand operand by right hand operand and return remainder. |
** |
Exponent operator - Perform exponential (power) calculation on operands. |
// |
Floor Division operator - The division of operands where the result is the quotient in which the digits after the decimal point are removed. |
The following example illustrates the use of the above discussed operators.
>>> a=20
>>> b=45.0
>>> a+b
65.0
>>> a-b
-25.0
>>> a*b
900.0
>>> b/a
2.25
>>> b%a
5.0
>>> a**b
3.5184372088832e+58
>>> b//a
2.0
A prelational operator is an operator that tests some kind of relation between two operands. Table enlist the relational operators with description.
Operator |
Description |
== |
Check if the values of two operands are equal. |
!= |
Check if the values of two operands are not equal. |
<> |
Check if the value of two operands are not equal (same as !=operator). |
> |
Check if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand. |
< |
Check if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand. |
>= |
Check if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand. |
<= |
Check if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand. |
The following example illustrates the use of the above discussed operators.
>>> a,b=20,40
>>> a==b
False
>>> a!=b
True
>>> a<>b
True
>>> a>b
False
>>> a<b
True
>>> a>=b
False
>>> a<=b
True
Assignment operator is an operator which is used to bind or rebind names to values. Augmented assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a binary operation and an assignment statement. An augmented assignment expression like x+=1 can be rewritten as x=x + 1. Table enlist the assignment operators with description.
Operator |
Description |
= |
Assignment operator- Assigns values from right side operand to left side operand. |
+= |
Augmented assignment operator- It adds right side operand to the left side operand and assign the result to left side operand. |
-= |
Augmented assignment operator- It subtracts right side operand from the left side operand and assign the result to left side operand. |
*= |
Augmented assignment operator- It multiplies right side operand with the left side operand and assign the result to left side operand. |
/= |
Augmented assignment operator- It divides left side operand with the right side operand and assign the result to left side operand. |
%= |
Augmented assignment operator- It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left side operand. |
**= |
Augmented assignment operator- Performs exponential (power) calculation on operands and assigns value to the left side operand. |
//= |
Augmented assignment operator- Performs floor division on operators and assigns value to the left side operand. |
The following example illustrates the use of the above discussed operators.
>>> a,b=20,40
>>> c=a+b
>>> c
60
>>> a,b=2.0,4.5
>>> c=a+b
>>> c
6.5
>>> c+=a
>>> c
8.5
>>> c-=a
>>> c
6.5
>>> c*=a
>>> c
13.0
>>> c/=a
>>> c
6.5
>>> c%=a
>>> c
0.5
>>> c**=a
>>> c
0.25
>>> c//=a
>>> c
0.0
A bitwise operator operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits. Table enlists the bitwise operators with description.
Operator |
Description |
& |
Binary AND operator- Copies corresponding binary 1 to the result, if it exists in both operands. |
| |
Binary OR operator- Copies corresponding binary 1 to the result, if it exists in either operand. |
^ |
Binary XOR operator- Copies corresponding binary 1 to the result, if it is set in one operand, but not both. |
~ |
Binary ones complement operator- It is unary and has the effect of flipping bits. |
<< |
Binary left shift operator- The left side operand bits are moved to the left side by the number on right side operand. |
>> |
Binary right shift operator- The left side operand bits are moved to the right side by the number on right side operand. |
The following example illustrates the use of the above discussed operators.
>>> a,b=60,13
>>> a & b
12
>>> a | b
61
>>> a^b
49
>>> ~a
-61
>>> a<<2
240
>>> a>>2
15
In the above example, the binary representation of variables a and b are 00111100 and 00001101, respectively. The above binary operations example is tabulated in table.
Bitwise operation |
Binary representation |
Decimal representation |
a & b |
00001100 |
12 |
a l b |
00111101 |
61 |
a ^ b |
00110001 |
49 |
~a |
11000011 |
-61 |
a<<2 |
11110000 |
240 |
a>>2 |
00001111 |
15 |
Logical operators compare boolean expressions and return a boolean result. Table enlist the logical operators with description.
Operator |
Description |
and |
Logical AND operator- If both the operands are true (or non-zero), then condition becomes true. |
or |
Logical OR operator- If any of the two operands is true (or non-zero), then condition becomes true. |
not |
Logical NOT operator- The result is reverse of the logical state of its operand. If the operand is true (or non-zero), then condition becomes false. |
The following example illustrates the use of the above discussed operators.
>>> 5>2 and 4<8
True
>>> 5>2 or 4>8
True
>>> not(5>2)
False
Membership operator is an operator which test for membership in a sequence, such as string, list, tuple etc. Table enlists the membership operators.
Operator |
Description |
in |
Evaluate to true, if it find a variable in the specified sequence; otherwise false. |
not in |
Evaluate to true, if it does not find a variable in the specified sequence; otherwise false. |
1The following example illustrates the use of the above discussed operators.
>>> 5 in [0,5,10,15]
True
>>> 6 in [0,5,10,15]
False
>>> 5 not in [0,5,10,15]
False
>>> 6 not in [0,5,10,15]
True
Identity operators compare the memory locations of two objects. Table provides a list of identity operators including a small explanation.
Operator |
Description |
is |
Evaluates to true, if the operands on either side of the operator point to the same object, and false otherwise. |
is not |
Evaluates to false, if the operands on either side of the operator point to the same object, and true otherwise. |
The following example illustrates the use of the above discussed operators.
>>> a=b=3.1
>>> a is b
True
>>> id(a)
30984528
>>> id(b)
30984528
>>> c,ct=3.1,3.1
>>> c is d
False
>>> id(c)
35058472
>>> id(d)
30984592
>>> c is not d
True
>>> a is not b
False
Dinesh Thakur holds an B.C.A, MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular Computer Notes blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.
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