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by Dinesh Thakur

LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) is the reference distribution protocol which tends to become the most used in MPLS standard. This protocol takes account of unicast and multicast addresses. Routing is explicit and is managed by the output nodes. Exchanges are carried out under the TCP to ensure acceptable quality.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

MPLS (MultiProtocol Label-Switching) is a standard proposed by IETF, the Internet standards body for all architectures and high-level protocols (IP, IPX, AppleTalk, etc.). However, his most typical implementation concerns the IP protocol only.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

IP-switching developed by Ipsilon Networks, Inc. it was the first version of the label-switching. In this architecture, the road is determined by the IP flow. IP-switch nodes replace the routers is working in router mode to trace the path with the first IP packet flow, or by ATM cell switching mode, for all the cells which follow the route path. The first IP packet is routed normally, such as an Internet network. The route is determined by an Internet routing algorithm.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

MPOA (MultiProtocol Over ATM) is a protocol developed by the ATM Forum. More complex than NHRP he uses the techniques described in the previous sections by uniting and complementing to achieve IP packet transport or other protocol packets, such as IPX, over an ATM network interconnection. The road can be determined either by a centralized route server solution type, either by a distributed solution using the PNNI or NHRP protocols.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The Ethernet switch or Ethernet FDSE (Full Duplex Switched Ethernet), was born in the early 1990s before the advent of switched Ethernet, shared Ethernet networks were cut into shared subnets autonomous, interconnected by bridges. Therefore, the traffic was multiplied by the number of subnets.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The next field contains the reference made to the VCI / VPI (Virtual Channel Identifier / Virtual Path Identifier). The role of virtual paths is to provide semi-permanent connections.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

As explained above, the cell is formed of exactly 53 bytes, comprising 5 bytes of header and 48 bytes of data.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

As we know, for transmitting a bit, it must transmit a particular signal to recognize if its value is equal to 0 or 1. The technical baseband sub crenellated is not reliable when the distance exceeds a few hundreds of meters. For a signal that we can recover properly, it must be given a special shape the modulating.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Duplex is a telecommunications term for communication channels that go in both ways at once. "Half-duplex" indicates that when you type a character on your keyboard, the character is displayed on your screen by your computer or terminal as it is sent to the remote computer or terminal. "Full-duplex" means that the character is sent to the remote computer, which then sends it back to display it on your screen. If your modem software is set for half-duplex, but the remote computer thinks you are full-duplex, each character you type will appear as two characters on your screen.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Because the Layer 2 protocols depend heavily on the features originally specified for PPP, it is worth examining this protocol more closely. PPP was designed to send data across dial-up or dedicated point to- point connections. PPP encapsulates IP, IPX, and NetBEUI packets within PPP frames, and then transmits the PPP-encapsulated packets across a point-to-point link. PPP is used between a dial-up client and an NAS.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The purpose of ATM is to provide high speed, low-delay multiplexing and switching networks to support any type of user traffic, such as voice, data or video applications. This is specifically designed as single technology for voice, video, and data.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Cell relay is data transmission service that uses transmission technology referred to as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). As the name suggests, the data transmission unit is a fixed length of data known as a cell. High-speed transmission compared to other services like frame relay is possible with the cell relay method. The cell relay is considered by most to be the transport service of the future.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

There are two main types of Public Domain Networks (PDN).

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Cell switching is associated with Asynchronous Transmission Mode (ATM) which is considered to be a high speed switching technology that attempted to overcome the speed problems faced by the shared media like Ethernet and FDDI. Cell switching uses a connection-oriented packet-switched network.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Datagram is better if numbers of packets are not very large. As it is a connectionless service there is no need to prior call set up. Therefore, It is more flexible and provides alternate route to avoid the congested part of the network.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Virtual Circuit (VC) - In this type connection, DTE selects the links to be used before communication to connect a receiver just as in the case of telephone network. In other words, we may say that a pre-planned route established before any packets are sent. A communications arrangement in which data from a source user may be passed to a destination user over various real circuit configurations during a single period of communication and the Information about the routing of packets is stored in all nodes throughout the set-up phase. Virtual circuits generally set up on a per connection basis and are disconnected when the connection is terminated and after that, the information in the network is erased. However, a permanent virtual circuit can be established as an option to provide a dedicated link between two facilities.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The terminal connected to the packet switched network can communicate with multiple terminals at the same time using a single physical line. This makes it possible to set multiple logical paths called logical channels on a single physical line.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Fiber optic technology is considered to meet the ever-increasing demand of bandwidth for the exchange of information and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) provides solutions for the ever-increasing demand of bandwidth through optical networks. In optical communication" the analog of FDM is referred to as wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM).



 
by Dinesh Thakur

A circuit is a path between two or more points along which an electrical current flows. In data communication, we may consider a circuit as a specific path between two or more points along which signals can be carried. The signals may be analog, binary or digital. It has been shown in the Figures, wherein the link between PC and modem, link between modem and CTO and so on constitutes a circuit.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

• PPP was devised by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) to create a data link protocol for point to point lines that can solve all the problems present in SLIP.

• PPP is most commonly used data link protocol. It is used to connect the Home PC to the server of ISP via a modem.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

1   A message is a logical unit of information and can be of any length.

  1. In message switching, if a station wishes to send a message to another station, it first adds the destination address to the message.
  2. Message switching does not establish a dedicated path between the two communicating devices i.e. no direct link is established between sender and receiver.


 
by Dinesh Thakur

Circuit switching is a switching method in which a dedicated communication path in physical form between two stations within a network is established, maintained and terminated for each communication session. It has basically three phases as circuit establishment, data transfer and circuit disconnect.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Conceived in the 1960's, packet switching is a more recent technology than circuit switching which addresses a disadvantage of circuit switching: the need to allocate resources for a circuit, thus incurring link capacity wastes when no data flows on a circuit.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Time space switching:- A time space (ts) switch takes the outputs of several time-division switches, for example, TSI switches and connects them as inputs as a space division switch. The effect of this paired arrangement is that packets can be swapped between different output lines.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Switching Techniques - In large networks there might be multiple paths linking sender and receiver. Information may be switched as it travels through various communication channels. There are four typical switching techniques available for digital traffic.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The majority of people, not having lines (cable or Ethernet) linked directly to the Internet, must use telephone lines (the most widely used network) to connect to the Internet. The connection is made using a modem, a device capable of converting digital data from the computer into analogue signals (that can circulate on telephone lines by amplitude or frequency modulation, in the same way as voice when you use the telephone).



 
by Dinesh Thakur

 You are familiar with the-concept of switching. Circuit switching is the study of data link layer. The services of networks are provided by using the concept of packet switching.