by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Open System Interconnection (OSI) model, an ISO standard for worldwide communication Networks that defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Layering the communications process means breaking down the communication process into Smaller and Easier to handle interdependent categories. The convention and rules used in such communications are collectively known as Layer protocolOpen Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is developed by ISO (International organization for standardization) in 1984. ISO is the organization dedicated to defining global communication and standards.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The pair of twisted is the simplest transmission medium. it consists of one or more pairs of electrical son arranged spiral. This type of support is suitable for transmission both analog and digital.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Coaxial cables are the guided media that carnes the signal of higher frequency range compared to twisted pair cable. Coaxial cables are also called coax. (short form). Two types of coaxial cables are widely used: 50 ohm cable and 75 ohm cable. 50 ohm cable is used for digital transmission and 75 ohm cable is used for analog transmission. Due to the shield provided, this cable has excellent noise immunity. It has a large bandwidth and low losses. Co-axial cables are easy to install. They are often installed either in a device to device daisy chain (Ethernet) or a star (ARC net).

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• Bluetooth is, with the infrared, one of the major wireless technologies developed to achieve WPAN. Bluetooth is a wireless LAN technology used to connect devices of different functions such as telephones, computers (laptop or desktop), notebooks, cameras, printers and so on. Bluetooth is an example of personal area network.
• Bluetooth project was started by SIG (Special Interest Group) formed by four companies  IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba for interconnecting computing and communicating devices using short-range, lower-power, inexpensive wireless radios.
• The project was named Bluetooth after the name of Viking king – Harald Blaatand who unified Denmark and Norway in 10th century.
• Nowadays, Bluetooth technology is used for several computer and non computer application:

1. It is used for providing communication between peripheral devices like wireless mouse or keyboard with the computer.
2. It is used by modern healthcare devices to send signals to monitors.
3. It is used by modern communicating devices like mobile phone, PDAs, palmtops etc to transfer data rapidly.
4. It is used for dial up networking. Thus allowing a notebook computer to call via a mobile phone.
5. It is used for cordless telephoning to connect a handset and its local base station.
6. It also allows hands-free voice comml1nication with headset.
7. It also enables a mobile computer to connect to a fixed LAN.
8. It can also be used for file transfer operations from one mobile phone to another.
9. Bluetoothusesomnidirectionalradio waves that can through wallsor othernon-metalbarriers.

Bluetooth devices have a built-in short range radio transmitter. The rate provided is 1Mbps and uses 2.4 GHz bandwidth.

Bluetooth is that when the device is with in the scope of a other devices automatically start the transfer information without the user noticing. small network between the devices is created and the user can accessed as if there were cables.

Bluetooth Architecture

Bluetooth architecture defines two types of networks:

1. Piconet

2. Scattemet

1. Piconet

• Piconet is a Bluetooth network that consists of one primary (master) node and seven active secondary (slave) nodes.

• Thus, piconet can have upto eight active nodes (1 master and 7 slaves) or stations within the distance of 10 meters.

• There can be only one primary or master station in each piconet.

• The communication between the primary and the secondary can be one-to-one or one-to-many.


• All communication is between master and a slave. Salve-slave communication is not possible.

• In addition to seven active slave station, a piconet can have upto 255 parked nodes. These parked nodes are secondary or slave stations and cannot take part in communication until it is moved from parked state to active state.

2. Scatternet

• Scattemet is formed by combining various piconets.

• A slave in one piconet can act as a master or primary in other piconet.

• Such a station or node can receive messages from the master in the first piconet and deliver the message to its slaves in other piconet where it is acting as master. This node is also called bridge slave.

• Thus a station can be a member of two piconets.

• A station cannot be a master in two piconets.


Bluetooth layers and Protocol Stack

• Bluetooth standard has many protocols that are organized into different layers.

• The layer structure of Bluetooth does not follow OS1 model, TCP/IP model or any other known model.

• The different layers and Bluetooth protocol architecture.

                 Bluetooth layers and protocol architecture

Radio Layer

• The Bluetooth radio layer corresponds to the physical layer of OSI model.

• It deals with ratio transmission and modulation.

• The radio layer moves data from master to slave or vice versa.

• It is a low power system that uses 2.4 GHz ISM band in a range of 10 meters.

• This band is divided into 79 channels of 1MHz each. Bluetooth uses the Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) method in the physical layer to avoid interference from other devices or networks.

• Bluetooth hops 1600 times per second, i.e. each device changes its modulation frequency 1600 times per second.

• In order to change bits into a signal, it uses a version of FSK called GFSK i.e. FSK with Gaussian bandwidth filtering.

Baseband Layer

• Baseband layer is equivalent to the MAC sublayer in LANs.

• Bluetooth uses a form of TDMA called TDD-TDMA (time division duplex TDMA).

• Master and slave stations communicate with each other using time slots.

• The master in each piconet defines the time slot of 625 µsec.

• In TDD- TDMA, communication is half duplex in which receiver can send and receive data but not at the same time.

• If the piconet has only no slave; the master uses even numbered slots (0, 2, 4, ...) and the slave uses odd-numbered slots (1, 3, 5, .... ). Both master and slave communicate in half duplex mode. In slot 0, master sends & secondary receives; in slot 1, secondary sends and primary receives.

• If piconet has more than one slave, the master uses even numbered slots. The slave sends in the next odd-numbered slot if the packet in the previous slot was addressed to it.

• In Baseband layer, two types of links can be created between a master and slave. These are:

1. Asynchronous Connection-less (ACL)

• It is used for packet switched data that is available at irregular intervals.

• ACL delivers traffic on a best effort basis. Frames can be lost & may have to be retransmitted.

• A slave can have only one ACL link to its master.

• Thus ACL link is used where correct delivery is preferred over fast delivery.

• The ACL can achieve a maximum data rate of 721 kbps by using one, three or more slots.

2. Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO)

• sco is used for real time data such as sound. It is used where fast delivery is preferred over accurate delivery.

• In an sco link, a physical link is created between the master and slave by reserving specific slots at regular intervals.

• Damaged packet; are not retransmitted over sco links.

• A slave can have three sco links with the master and can send data at 64 Kbps.

Logical Link, Control Adaptation Protocol Layer (L2CAP)

• The logical unit link control adaptation protocol is equivalent to logical link control sublayer of LAN.

• The ACL link uses L2CAP for data exchange but sco channel does not use it.

• The various function of L2CAP is:

1. Segmentation and reassembly

• L2CAP receives the packets of upto 64 KB from upper layers and divides them into frames for transmission.

• It adds extra information to define the location of frame in the original packet.

• The L2CAP reassembles the frame into packets again at the destination.

2. Multiplexing

• L2CAP performs multiplexing at sender side and demultiplexing at receiver side.

• At the sender site, it accepts data from one of the upper layer protocols frames them and deliver them to the Baseband layer.

• At the receiver site, it accepts a frame from the baseband layer, extracts the data, and delivers them to the appropriate protocol1ayer.

3. Quality of Service (QOS)

• L2CAP handles quality of service requirements, both when links are established and during normal operation.

• It also enables the devices to negotiate the maximum payload size during connection establishment.

Bluetooth Frame Format

The various fields of blue tooth frame format are:

                 Bluetooth Frame Format

1. Access Code: It is 72 bit field that contains synchronization bits. It identifies the master.

2. Header: This is 54-bit field. It contain 18 bit pattern that is repeated for 3 time.

The header field contains following subfields:

(i) Address: This 3 bit field can define upto seven slaves (1 to 7). If the address is zero, it is used for broadcast communication from primary to all secondaries.

(ii)Type: This 4 bit field identifies the type of data coming from upper layers.

(iii) F: This flow bit is used for flow control. When set to 1, it means the device is unable to receive more frames.

(iv) A: This bit is used for acknowledgement.

(v) S: This bit contains a sequence number of the frame to detect retransmission. As stop and wait protocol is used, one bit is sufficient.

(vi) Checksum: This 8 bit field contains checksum to detect errors in header.

3. Data: This field can be 0 to 2744 bits long. It contains data or control information coming from upper layers

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) : UTP is the copper media, inherited from telephony, which is being used for increasingly higher data rates, and is rapidly becoming the de facto standard for horizontal wiring, the connection between, and including, the outlet and the termination in the communication closet.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Hamming code is technique developed by R.W. Hamming for error correction. This method corrects the error by finding the state at which the error has occurred.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• In this method of flow control, the sender sends a single frame to receiver & waits for an acknowledgment.

• The next frame is sent by sender only when acknowledgment of previous frame is received.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• In all practical situations, the transmission of data needs to be bi-directional. This is called as full-duplex transmission.

• We can achieve this full duplex transmission i.e. by having two separate channels-one for forward data transfer and the other for separate transfer i.e. for acknowledgements.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Data link layer is the second layer in OSI reference model and lies above the physical layer. The data link layer performs the following functions.

1. Data link layer receives the data from the network layer & divide it into manageable units called frames.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

We are talking of Wireless LAN (WLAN) that is to say, "Wireless LAN", not to be confused with WAN course. Also referred Radio LAN (WLAN) if the communication medium is the radio (not light infrared for example).The stations of the wireless network can communicate directly with each other, we called Ad Hoc network type, or via relay terminals called APs (Access Points, PA) then it is an infrastructure network. the second type is by far the most common in business.


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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.