by Dinesh Thakur

In 1969, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), belonging to the United States Department of Defense, funded a project. ARPA established a network of switching packets of computers connected through rented point-to-point lines called the Network of the Agency for Advanced Research Projects (ARPANET), which provided the basis for the first investigations in network interconnection. The conventions developed by ARPA to specify how individual computers could communicate over the network became TCP / IP.

The TCP / IP protocol, acronym for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol, protocols used to control Internet transmission. It allows different types of computers or computers to communicate through heterogeneous networks.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Multiplexing or (muxing) - To combine multiple signals (analog or digital) for transmission over a single line or media. A common type of multiplexing combines several low-speed signals for transmission over a single high-speed connection. In other words, we can say that Muxing used for sharing of a medium and its link by two or more devices. It can provide both Efficiency and Privacy.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Modulation has defined as the process of combining an input signal m (t) and a frequency carrier FC to produce an S (t) signal whose bandwidth is (usually) centred around FC. In the case of digital data, the justification of the modulation must be clear: it is necessary when there is only the possibility of analogue transmission, to convert the digital data into analogues. However, when the data is analogue, the justification is not so apparent. After all, voice signals are transmitted through telephone lines using their original spectrum (this is called baseband transmission). There are two main reasons:

 
by Dinesh Thakur

The term variable-length subnet mask (VLSM) refers to the fact that a network can configure with different masks. The basic idea behind VLSM is to offer more flexibility by dividing a network into multiple subnets while optimizing the allocation of varying amounts of host space between subnets. Without VLSM, only one subnet mask can apply to an entire network. It would restrict the number of hosts given the number of subnets required. If you select the mask so that it has enough subnets, you might not be able to assign enough host numbers in each subnet. The same is true for hosts; A mask that allows enough hosts may not provide enough subnet space. VLSM provides the ability to assign subnets with varying numbers of hosts, allowing the network administrator to use the address space better.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

In order to provide computer to computer communication via Internet, we need a global addressing scheme. Such an addressing is provided by Internet Protocol (IP) at the network layer.
It is a 32-bit address This is called an IP address or logical address. Which is made up of the network ID, plus a unique host ID. This address is typically represented with the decimal value of each octet separated by a period (for example, 192.168.7.27).   Every Host and router on the internet has an IP Address. This IP address is unique and no two devices on the Internet can have the same address at the same time.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet Protocol technologies to securely share any part of an organization's information or operational systems within that organization. The term is used in contrast tointernet,a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. ADSL is a type of DSL line and is one of the technologies vying to replace ISDN. It consists of the transmission of digital data supported by the symmetric pair of copper carried by the conventional telephone line or subscriber line, as long as the range does not exceed 5.5 km measured from the Telephone System, or there are no other services on the same cable that may interfere. It is a broadband Internet access technology, which implies a higher rate of data transmission in the data transfer, and supports simultaneous Internet browsing and phone use.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol used by networked devices or clients to obtain the parameters necessary for operationin an Internet Protocol network. This protocol reduces system administration workload, allowing devices to be added to the network with little or no manual configurations. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a way to administrator network parameter assignment from a single DHCP server, or a group of DHCP servers arranged in a fault-tolerant manner. Even in small networks,



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Before discussing about Domain Name Server: we are going to explain some factor and simple difference between Domain Name Server and Domain Name System.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

What is http: HTTP full form HyperText Transfer Protocol used mainly to access data on the World Wide Web. HTTP is a Server and Client communication Protocol, which is primarily set of rules for formating and transferring webpage data (text, images, video and Multimedia files) over the world wide web. This is the Protocol used to create communication between Web Servers and Web Users. HTTP is an application layer Protocol that works on the top of the TCP/IP suite of Protocols.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

VPN (Virtual Private Network) Definition: VPN meaning that it is a private point-to-point connection between two machines or networks over a shared or public network such as the internet. A Virtual Private Network is a combination of software and hardware. VPN (Virtual Private Network) technology, can be use in organization to extend its safe encrypted connection over less secure internet to connect remote users, branch offices, and partner private, internal network. VPN turn the Internet into a simulated private WAN.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

The INSERT statement is used to add new row to a table. To insert new row(s) into a table, the table must be in your own schema or you must have INSERT privilege on the table. Only one row is inserted at a time with this syntax. You can insert literal values (26.5, 'DINESH), expres­sions containing operators and functions, null values etc. only.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

One of the last terms included in the networking environment is the word Extranet. An Extranet is nothing more than a virtual private network, using the Internet as a means of transporting information between the nodes of our private network. Thanks to an Extranet you can join two Intranets located anywhere in the world.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

There are times when you want to prevent inheritance. Perhaps there is no need the extensibility for various reasons. If you know this for sure, there are advantages to declaring the final keyword precisely that.

Java has a special keyword called final that can use for creating final methods, final classes, and final variables. The final modifier is void, which simply means that no value is returned.The final modifier indicates that the value of this member cannot change. We get a compile-time error if our program tries to change its contents. Each of these is explained in more detail next.

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Java is a robust, general-purpose, high-level programming language and a powerful software platform. It is also object-oriented, distributed, portable and multi-threaded. Java follows the 'Write - once - run - anywhere' approach. All Java programs must run on the Java platform that has two components, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and the Java Application Programming Interface (API).

 
by Dinesh Thakur

Keywords also are known as reserved words are the pre-defined identifiers reserved by Java for a specific purpose that inform the compiler about what the program should do. A Keyword is that which have a special meaning those already explained to the java language like int, float, class, public, etc. these are the reserved keywords. These special words cannot be used as class names, variables, or method names, because they have special meaning within the language.



 
by Dinesh Thakur

In computer science, “type casting” and “type conversion” refers when there is either implicitly or explicitly is a conversion from one data type to another. When both types of expression are compatible with each other, then Data type conversions from one type to another can be carried out Automatically by java compiler. However, there is a technical difference between type conversion and type casting, i.e. type conversion is carried out “automatically” by java compiler while the "type casting" (using a cast operator) is to be explicitly performed by the java programmer.It is usually classified into two categories



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Type Casting: The process of converting one data type to another is called casting. Casting is often necessary when a function returns a data of type in different form then we need to perform an operation. Under certain circumstances Type conversion can be carried out automatically, in other cases it must be "forced" manually (explicitly). For example, the read() member function of the standard input stream (System.in) returns an int. If we want to store data of type int returned by read() into a variable of char type, we need to cast it :



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Java Tokens:- A java Program is made up of Classes and Methods and in the Methods are the Container of the various Statements And a Statement is made up of Variables, Constants, operators etc . 



 
by Dinesh Thakur

Java Literals: A literal in java refers to a fixed value that appears directly in a program. Java define five primary types of literals. By literal we mean any number, text, or other information that represents a value. This means what you type is what you get. They are commonly known as constants. We will use literals in addition to variables in Java statement.



 

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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.