by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

The trapezoidal rule is the simplest method to approximate the definite integral of a function f(x) over the interval [a, b]. Given N equally space points (with a spacing of h) X0, X1, ..., XN such that X0 = a and XN = b, the integral of f(x) can be approximated as the sum

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

C program to encrypt text using one of the simplest ciphers known as the "Caesar cipher." In this encryption scheme, we shift all characters by a given offset. For example, if we use an offset of 4, every occurrence of 'A' will be replaced by 'E', every occurrence of 'B' will be replaced by 'F', and so forth. The encrypted text can be decrypted by using the reverse process if know the offset used for the encryption.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

The C program computes the rational approximation to a given real number, i.e., given a real number val, the program computes a pair of integers N and D such that the fraction N/D is a good approximation to val. To do so, we use the following series of steps.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

Perfect numbers are positive integers which have the special property that the sum of all their factors equals the number itself, e.g., 6 = 1+2+3. The C program finds and prints out all perfect numbers less than 1000.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

The Greatest Common Divisor of two positive integers can be calculated iteratively by the following formula known as Euclid's algorithm. You can see that this is a recursive definition with GCD(m,n) defined in terms of GCD(n,m%n).

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

C program to sum the series 1/12+1/22+1/32

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

1. if income is less thn, 1,50,000 then no tax
2. if taxable income is in the range 1,50,001-300,000 then charge 10% tax
3. if taxable income is in the range 3,00,001-500,000 then charge 20% tax
4. if taxable income is above 5,00,001 then charge 30% tax.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

Nested for loops have many applications, particularly, in programs dealing with sorting of lists, input/output of multi-dimensional arrays, etc. and also in the evaluation of expressions involving more than one parameter. The code for nested/or loops is given below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

So far, we have used only one variable in a for loop; however, more than one variable with different end values and with different modes of increments/decrements may also be used. In a compound for expression, the variables may be separated by a comma as illustrated for i and j below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

In the expression for for loop the inclusion of the expressions are optional. However, two semicolons must be included. An endless for loop may be written as shown below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

The while expression may consist of a single expression (as it is generally done in most of the programs); however, we may also use compound conditions or expressions. Multiple expressions may be connected by a comma operator or by Boolean operators. If the expressions are simply connected by comma, it is the last expression that is evaluated. The expressions preceding the last are ignored. In the following while expression the first expression, i.e., j <4 is neglected.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

There are several situations where more than one parameter need to be varied over a range of values to obtain the desired results. For example, there may be a function having two variables, say x and y and it is desired to evaluate the function for different values of x and y. In such cases, for every value of x the values of y are varied over the range of values of y. This calls for nested while expressions as illustrated below.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

The continue statement is another loop interruption statement provided in the C language. It interrupts only the current iteration of the loop as opposed to the break statement which interrupts the execution of the entire loop. The format of the continue statement is as follows:

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

The outer for loop is set up to process each number in the given range. Each number is tested within this loop using the simplified code. The execution of the break statement causes inner for loop to terminate as it is the nearest loop enclosing the break statement. If the inner for loop is completely executed, i. e., if condition d == num is true, num is printed as a prime number.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

We have seen that a break statement is usually used in a switch statement after the statements in each case. The execution of such a break statement causes the execution of the switch statement to be terminated and the control to be transferred to the statement following the switch statement.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

In this example, the initial value of loop variable j (of type int) is 100 and the update expression (j -= 10) reduces it by 10 after each iteration of the for loop.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

Consider that we wish to print a given positive integer number in words, as a sequence of digit strings. For example, number 123 should be printed as One Two Three. This might be required in financial applications, for example, to print the cheque amount in words.

 
by Dinesh Thakur Category: Control Structures

Three positive integer numbers a, band c, such that a<b<c form a Pythagorean triplet if c2= a2 +b2 , i. e,, a, b and c form the sides of a right-angled triangle. To select the values of a and b such that a < b and a, b < max, we can use nested for loops as shown below:

 

Page 1 of 4



About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.



Related Articles