by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Transmission media is a pathway that carries the information from sender to receiver. We use different types of cables or waves to transmit data. Data is transmitted normally through electrical or electromagnetic signals.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Definition Data Transmission: When we enter data into the computer via keyboard, each keyed element is encoded by the electronics within the keyboard into an equivalent binary coded pattern, using one of the standard coding schemes that are used for the interchange of information. To represent all characters of the keyboard, a unique pattern of 7 or 8 bits in size is used. The use of 7 bits means that 128 different elements can be represented, while 8 bits can represent 256 elements. A similar procedure is followed at the receiver that decodes every received binary pattern into the corresponding character.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

ALOHA: ALOHA is a system for coordinating and arbitrating access to a shared communication Networks channel. It was developed in the 1970s by Norman Abramson and his colleagues at the University of Hawaii. The original system used for ground based radio broadcasting, but the system has been implemented in satellite communication systems.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Data communication refers to the exchange of data between a source and a receiver via form of transmission media such as a wire cable. Data communication is said to be local if communicating devices are in the same building or a similarly restricted geographical area.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Congestion is an important issue that can arise in packet switched network. Congestion is a situation in Communication Networks in which too many packets are present in a part of the subnet, performance degrades. Congestion in a network may occur when the load on the network (i.e. the number of packets sent to the network) is greater than the capacity of the network (i.e. the number of packets a network can handle.). Network congestion occurs in case of traffic overloading.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The first layer (physical layer) of Communication Networks the OSI Seven layer model is dedicated to the transmission media. Due to the variety of transmission media and network wiring methods, selecting the most appropriate media can be confusing - what is the optimal cost-effective solution. When choosing the transmission media, what are the factors to be considered?
• Transmission Rate
• Distances
• Cost and Ease of Installation
• Resistance to Environmental Conditions

There are two types of transmission media :

• Guided
• Unguided

Guided Media :

• Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
• Shielded Twisted Pair
• Coaxial Cable
• Optical Fiber

Two-wire Open Lines

The simplest transmission media is a two-wire transmission line. There are two wires insulated from each other, open to free space. This type of media is suitable for connecting equipments that are separated less than 50 meters. This media can support data rate up to a theoretical maximum of 19 Kbps. A two-wire transmission media can directly connect two computers. However, if a computer is to be connected to a communicating device like a modem, multiple communication lines are required. In this case, a number of separate insulated wires are moulded in the form of a flat ribbon with terminating connectors as shown in Figure (b).

              Terminating Connector

The limitations of this transmission media are their poor noise characteristics, failure to provide connectivity over long distances, low bit rate. This type of transmission media is often used in telephone networks.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) : UTP is the copper media, inherited from telephony, which is being used for increasingly higher data rates, and is rapidly becoming the de facto standard for horizontal wiring, the connection between, and including, the outlet and the termination in the communication closet.

Twisted Pair is a pair of copper wires, with diameters of 0.4-0.8 mm, twisted together and wrapped with a plastic coating. The twisting increases the electrical noise immunity, and reduces the bit error rate (BER) of the data transmission. A UTP cable contains from 2 to 4200 twisted pairs.

UTP is a very flexible, low cost media, and can be used for either voice or data communications. Its greatest disadvantage is the limited bandwidth, which restricts long distance transmission with low error rates.

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) : STP is heavier and more difficult to manufacture, but it can greatly improve the signaling rate in a given transmission scheme Twisting provides cancellation of magnetically induced fields and currents on a pair of conductors. 

Magnetic fields arise around other heavy current-carrying conductors and around large electric motors. Various grades of copper cables are available, with Grade 5 being the best and most expensive.

Grade 5 copper, appropriate for use in 100-Mbps applications, has more twists per inch than lower grades. More twists per inch means more linear feet of copper wire used to make up a cable run, and more copper means more money.

Shielding provides a means to reflect or absorb electric fields that are present around cables. Shielding comes in a variety of forms from copperbraiding or copper meshes to aluminized.

Mylar tape wrapped around each conductor and again around the twisted pair.

Coaxial Cable: Coaxial cable is a two-conductor cable in which one conductor forms an electromagnetic shield around the other. The two conductors are separated by insulation. It is a constant impedance transmission cable. This media is used in base band and broadband transmission. Coaxial cables do not produce external electric and magnetic fields and are not affected by them. This makes them ideally suited, although more expensive, for transmitting signals. 

Optical Fiber : Optical fiber consists of thin glass fibers that can carry information at frequencies in the visible light spectrum and beyond. The typical optical fiber consists of a very narrow strand of glass called the core. Around the core is a concentric layer of glass called the cladding. 

A typical core diameter is 62.5 microns .Typically cladding has a diameter of 125 microns. Coating the cladding is a protective coating consisting of plastic, it is called the Jacket. An important characteristic of fiber optics is refraction. Refraction is the characteristic of a material to either pass or reflect light. When light passes through a medium, it “bends” as it passes from one medium to the other. An example of this is when we look into a pond of water If the angle of incidence is small, the light rays are reflected and do not pass into the water.

If the angle of incident is great, light passes through the media but is bent or refracted. Optical fibers work on the principle that the core refracts the light and the cladding reflects the light. The core refracts the light and guides the light along its path. The cladding reflects any light back into the core and stops light from escaping through it - it bounds the medium!

Unguided Media : Transmission media then looking at analysis of using them unguided transmission media is data signals that flow through the air. They are not guided or bound to a channel to follow. Following are unguided media used for data communication.

• Radio Transmission
• Microwave
• Satellite Communication

• RF Propagation: There are three types of RF (radio frequency) propagation :

• Ground Wave
• Ionospheric
• Line of Sight (LOS)

Ground wave propagation follows the curvature of the Earth. Ground waves have carrier frequencies up to 2 MHz. AM radio is an example of ground wave propagation. Ionospheric propagation bounces off of the Earth’s ionospheric layer in the upper atmosphere.

It is sometimes called double hop propagation. It operates in the frequency range of 30 - 85 MHz. Because it depends on the Earth’s ionosphere, it changes with the weather and time of day. The signal bounces off of the ionosphere and back to earth. Ham radios operate in this range.

Line of sight propagation transmits exactly in the line of sight. The receive station must be in the view of the transmit station. It is sometimes called space waves or tropospheric propagation. It is limited by the curvature of the Earth for ground-based stations (100 km, from horizon to horizon). Reflected waves can cause problems. Examples of line of sight propagation are: FM radio, microwave and satellite.

Radio Frequencies : The frequency spectrum operates from 0 Hz (DC) to gamma rays (1019 Hz). Radio frequencies are in the range of 300 kHz to 10 GHz. We are seeing an emerging technology called wireless LANs. Some use radio frequencies to connect the workstations together, some use infrared technology. 

Microwave : Microwave transmission is line of sight transmission. The transmit station must be in visible contact with the receive station. This sets a limit on the distance between stations depending on the local geography. Typically the line of sight due to the Earth’s curvature is only 50 km to the horizon! Repeater stations must be placed so the data signal can hop, skip and jump across the country.

Microwaves operate at high operating frequencies of 3 to 10 GHz. This allows them to carry large quantities of data due to their large bandwidth.

Advantages :

(a) They require no right of way acquisition between towers.

(b) They can carry high quantities of information due to their high operating frequencies.

(c) Low cost land purchase: each tower occupies only a small area.

(d) High frequency/short wavelength signals require small antennae.

Disadvantages :

(a) Attenuation by solid objects: birds, rain, snow and fog.

(b) Reflected from flat surfaces like water and metal.

(c) Diffracted (split) around solid objects.

(d) Reflected by atmosphere, thus causing beam to be projected away from receiver.

Satellite : Satellites are transponders (units that receive on one frequency and retransmit on another) that are set in geostationary orbits directly over the equator. These geostationary orbits are 36,000 km from the Earth’s surface. At this point, the gravitational pull of the Earth and the centrifugal force of Earth’s rotation are balanced and cancel each other out. Centrifugal force is the rotational f0rce placed on the satellite that wants to fling it out into space.

The uplink is the transmitter of data to the satellite. The downlink is the receiver of data. Uplinks and downlinks are also called Earth stations because they are located on the Earth. The footprint is the “shadow” that the satellite can transmit to, the shadow being the area that can receive the satellite’s transmitted signal.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The term Transmission Mode defines the direction of the flow of information between two communication devices i.e. it tells the direction of signal flow between the two devices.

There are three ways or modes of data transmission: Simplex, Half duplex (HDX), Full duplex (FDX)

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Firstly we understand the concept of what is broadband connection in communication networks. Broadband is a high-capacity high-speed Data transmission medium. This can be done on a single cable by establishing different bandwidth channels. Broadband technology can be used to transmit voice, data and video over long distances simultaneously.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Error detection and correction has great practical importance in maintaining data (information) integrity across noisy Communication Networks channels and lessthan- reliable storage media.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) An error detection mechanism in which a special number is appended to a block of data in order to detect any changes introduced during storage (or transmission). The CRe is recalculated on retrieval (or reception) and compared to the value originally transmitted, which can reveal certain types of error. For example, a single corrupted bit in the data results in a one-bit change in the calculated CRC, but multiple corrupt bits may cancel each other out.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• In sliding window method, multiple frames are sent by sender at a time before needing an acknowledgment.

• Multiple frames sent by source are acknowledged by receiver using a single ACK frame.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The Media Access Control (MAC) data communication Networks protocol sub-layer, also known as the Medium Access Control, is a sub-layer of the data link layer specified in the seven-layer OSI model. The medium access layer was made necessary by systems that share a common communications medium. Typically these are local area networks. The MAC layer is the "low" part of the second OSI layer, the layer of the "data link". In fact, the IEEE divided this layer into two layers "above" is the control layer the logical connection (Logical Link Control, LLC) and "down" the control layer The medium access (MAC).

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Open System Interconnection (OSI) model, an ISO standard for worldwide communication Networks that defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Layering the communications process means breaking down the communication process into Smaller and Easier to handle interdependent categories. The convention and rules used in such communications are collectively known as Layer protocolOpen Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is developed by ISO (International organization for standardization) in 1984. ISO is the organization dedicated to defining global communication and standards.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The pair of twisted is the simplest transmission medium. it consists of one or more pairs of electrical son arranged spiral. This type of support is suitable for transmission both analog and digital.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Coaxial cables are the guided media that carnes the signal of higher frequency range compared to twisted pair cable. Coaxial cables are also called coax. (short form). Two types of coaxial cables are widely used: 50 ohm cable and 75 ohm cable. 50 ohm cable is used for digital transmission and 75 ohm cable is used for analog transmission. Due to the shield provided, this cable has excellent noise immunity. It has a large bandwidth and low losses. Co-axial cables are easy to install. They are often installed either in a device to device daisy chain (Ethernet) or a star (ARC net).

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• Bluetooth is, with the infrared, one of the major wireless technologies developed to achieve WPAN. Bluetooth is a wireless LAN technology used to connect devices of different functions such as telephones, computers (laptop or desktop), notebooks, cameras, printers and so on. Bluetooth is an example of personal area network.
• Bluetooth project was started by SIG (Special Interest Group) formed by four companies  IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba for interconnecting computing and communicating devices using short-range, lower-power, inexpensive wireless radios.
• The project was named Bluetooth after the name of Viking king – Harald Blaatand who unified Denmark and Norway in 10th century.
• Nowadays, Bluetooth technology is used for several computer and non computer application:

1. It is used for providing communication between peripheral devices like wireless mouse or keyboard with the computer.
2. It is used by modern healthcare devices to send signals to monitors.
3. It is used by modern communicating devices like mobile phone, PDAs, palmtops etc to transfer data rapidly.
4. It is used for dial up networking. Thus allowing a notebook computer to call via a mobile phone.
5. It is used for cordless telephoning to connect a handset and its local base station.
6. It also allows hands-free voice comml1nication with headset.
7. It also enables a mobile computer to connect to a fixed LAN.
8. It can also be used for file transfer operations from one mobile phone to another.
9. Bluetoothusesomnidirectionalradio waves that can through wallsor othernon-metalbarriers.

Bluetooth devices have a built-in short range radio transmitter. The rate provided is 1Mbps and uses 2.4 GHz bandwidth.

Bluetooth is that when the device is with in the scope of a other devices automatically start the transfer information without the user noticing. small network between the devices is created and the user can accessed as if there were cables.

Bluetooth Architecture

Bluetooth architecture defines two types of networks:

1. Piconet

2. Scattemet

1. Piconet

• Piconet is a Bluetooth network that consists of one primary (master) node and seven active secondary (slave) nodes.

• Thus, piconet can have upto eight active nodes (1 master and 7 slaves) or stations within the distance of 10 meters.

• There can be only one primary or master station in each piconet.

• The communication between the primary and the secondary can be one-to-one or one-to-many.


• All communication is between master and a slave. Salve-slave communication is not possible.

• In addition to seven active slave station, a piconet can have upto 255 parked nodes. These parked nodes are secondary or slave stations and cannot take part in communication until it is moved from parked state to active state.

2. Scatternet

• Scattemet is formed by combining various piconets.

• A slave in one piconet can act as a master or primary in other piconet.

• Such a station or node can receive messages from the master in the first piconet and deliver the message to its slaves in other piconet where it is acting as master. This node is also called bridge slave.

• Thus a station can be a member of two piconets.

• A station cannot be a master in two piconets.


Bluetooth layers and Protocol Stack

• Bluetooth standard has many protocols that are organized into different layers.

• The layer structure of Bluetooth does not follow OS1 model, TCP/IP model or any other known model.

• The different layers and Bluetooth protocol architecture.

                 Bluetooth layers and protocol architecture

Radio Layer

• The Bluetooth radio layer corresponds to the physical layer of OSI model.

• It deals with ratio transmission and modulation.

• The radio layer moves data from master to slave or vice versa.

• It is a low power system that uses 2.4 GHz ISM band in a range of 10 meters.

• This band is divided into 79 channels of 1MHz each. Bluetooth uses the Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) method in the physical layer to avoid interference from other devices or networks.

• Bluetooth hops 1600 times per second, i.e. each device changes its modulation frequency 1600 times per second.

• In order to change bits into a signal, it uses a version of FSK called GFSK i.e. FSK with Gaussian bandwidth filtering.

Baseband Layer

• Baseband layer is equivalent to the MAC sublayer in LANs.

• Bluetooth uses a form of TDMA called TDD-TDMA (time division duplex TDMA).

• Master and slave stations communicate with each other using time slots.

• The master in each piconet defines the time slot of 625 µsec.

• In TDD- TDMA, communication is half duplex in which receiver can send and receive data but not at the same time.

• If the piconet has only no slave; the master uses even numbered slots (0, 2, 4, ...) and the slave uses odd-numbered slots (1, 3, 5, .... ). Both master and slave communicate in half duplex mode. In slot 0, master sends & secondary receives; in slot 1, secondary sends and primary receives.

• If piconet has more than one slave, the master uses even numbered slots. The slave sends in the next odd-numbered slot if the packet in the previous slot was addressed to it.

• In Baseband layer, two types of links can be created between a master and slave. These are:

1. Asynchronous Connection-less (ACL)

• It is used for packet switched data that is available at irregular intervals.

• ACL delivers traffic on a best effort basis. Frames can be lost & may have to be retransmitted.

• A slave can have only one ACL link to its master.

• Thus ACL link is used where correct delivery is preferred over fast delivery.

• The ACL can achieve a maximum data rate of 721 kbps by using one, three or more slots.

2. Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO)

• sco is used for real time data such as sound. It is used where fast delivery is preferred over accurate delivery.

• In an sco link, a physical link is created between the master and slave by reserving specific slots at regular intervals.

• Damaged packet; are not retransmitted over sco links.

• A slave can have three sco links with the master and can send data at 64 Kbps.

Logical Link, Control Adaptation Protocol Layer (L2CAP)

• The logical unit link control adaptation protocol is equivalent to logical link control sublayer of LAN.

• The ACL link uses L2CAP for data exchange but sco channel does not use it.

• The various function of L2CAP is:

1. Segmentation and reassembly

• L2CAP receives the packets of upto 64 KB from upper layers and divides them into frames for transmission.

• It adds extra information to define the location of frame in the original packet.

• The L2CAP reassembles the frame into packets again at the destination.

2. Multiplexing

• L2CAP performs multiplexing at sender side and demultiplexing at receiver side.

• At the sender site, it accepts data from one of the upper layer protocols frames them and deliver them to the Baseband layer.

• At the receiver site, it accepts a frame from the baseband layer, extracts the data, and delivers them to the appropriate protocol1ayer.

3. Quality of Service (QOS)

• L2CAP handles quality of service requirements, both when links are established and during normal operation.

• It also enables the devices to negotiate the maximum payload size during connection establishment.

Bluetooth Frame Format

The various fields of blue tooth frame format are:

                 Bluetooth Frame Format

1. Access Code: It is 72 bit field that contains synchronization bits. It identifies the master.

2. Header: This is 54-bit field. It contain 18 bit pattern that is repeated for 3 time.

The header field contains following subfields:

(i) Address: This 3 bit field can define upto seven slaves (1 to 7). If the address is zero, it is used for broadcast communication from primary to all secondaries.

(ii)Type: This 4 bit field identifies the type of data coming from upper layers.

(iii) F: This flow bit is used for flow control. When set to 1, it means the device is unable to receive more frames.

(iv) A: This bit is used for acknowledgement.

(v) S: This bit contains a sequence number of the frame to detect retransmission. As stop and wait protocol is used, one bit is sufficient.

(vi) Checksum: This 8 bit field contains checksum to detect errors in header.

3. Data: This field can be 0 to 2744 bits long. It contains data or control information coming from upper layers

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) : UTP is the copper media, inherited from telephony, which is being used for increasingly higher data rates, and is rapidly becoming the de facto standard for horizontal wiring, the connection between, and including, the outlet and the termination in the communication closet.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Hamming code is technique developed by R.W. Hamming for error correction. This method corrects the error by finding the state at which the error has occurred.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• In this method of flow control, the sender sends a single frame to receiver & waits for an acknowledgment.

• The next frame is sent by sender only when acknowledgment of previous frame is received.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• In all practical situations, the transmission of data needs to be bi-directional. This is called as full-duplex transmission.

• We can achieve this full duplex transmission i.e. by having two separate channels-one for forward data transfer and the other for separate transfer i.e. for acknowledgements.


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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.

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