by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

What is Hub: Another name of Hub is Ethernet Hub, Repeater Hub, Active Hub and Network Hub. Basically, it is a similar to switch but are not as "smart", 

Hub Definition and Meaning

hub in computer network is used for connecting multiple computers or segments of a LAN. Normally, it is used for Peer to Peer small Home Network. LAN Hub receive data packets (frames) through one port and broadcasts them through all other ports, so that all other computers or other network devices can see all packets.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

A pair of wires twisted together form a twisted pair. They have more noise immunity than the two-wire open lines. Each wire is insulated and has thickness in the order of 0.016 inches to 0.015 inches.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The Figure shows the BNC connector and T-connector. The BNC connector and T-connector, these are simple connectors that cannot exchange data. An NIC and T-connector must be directly connected.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

This is also known as 10Base2, uses coaxial of thinner gauge of5 mm in diameter and bus topology as in the case of 10Base5 so that multiple computers can be connected to a single transmission line. Primarily it was used in office environments. The thinner cable is less costly to acquire and deploy, although its performance is less in terms of transmission distance. Because of its cost it is sometimes called as cheapnet. 10Base2 signifies in the same manner as 10Bases5except 2 is signified here as 200 meters maximum segment length (actually 185 meters).

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The transceiver exchanges data signals handled by the NIC and electric signals sent over a transmission line. A I5-pin D-SUB connector is used to connect transceivers and transceiver cables. Multiport transceiver supports more than one NIC.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

This uses traditional thick baseband coaxial cable in bus topology to connect multiple computers as shown. This single transmission line is called a segment. A coaxial cable 10mm in diameter, known as a thick coaxial cable is used as a transmission line. A terminator is connected at each end of the cable. Note that proper data communication cannot be assured even if one of these terminators is missing or not properly connected.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Definition: Media access control (MAC) and logical link control (LLC) are the sublayers of the data link layer (Layer 2) in OSI Reference Model. 'MAC' is also refer to as MAC layer. It use MAC protocols to provides unique addressing identification and channel access control mechanism for network nodes to communicate with other nodes across a shared channel.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Broadband A communications medium that can carry a wide range of signal frequencies, typically from audio up to video frequencies. In telecommunications the significance of a broadband system is that it can carry television and videoconferencing data as well as voice calls. A broadband medium can be made to carry many signals at once by apportioning its total bandwidth into many independent channels, each of which carries only a specific range of frequencies. In contrast, a BASEBAND can carry only a single channel. ATM, ADSL and Cable TV are all broadband media, while standard ISDN barely qualifies.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

It is required that information must be encoded into signals before it can be transported across communication media. In more precise words we may say that the waveform pattern of voltage or current used to represent the 1s and 0s of a digital signal on a transmission link is called digital to digital line encoding. There are different encoding schemes available:

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Infrared light transmissions have existed for many years and their use having been limited to TV remote controls and wireless slide projector remote controls. However, they now are assuming a position of some, if still limited, importance. Infrared systems use the infrared light spectrum to send a focused light beam to a receiver, much, as would a microwave system, although no reflective dish is used. Rather, pair of lenses is used, with a focused lens employed in the transmitting device and a collective lens in the receiving device as shown in Figure. Infrared is an airwave, rather that a conducted transmission system. Although generally used in short-haul transmission, they do offer substantial bandwidth, but with risks of interference.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Data transmission can be divided into parallel and serial data transmission.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Satellite radio, quite simply, is a non-terrestrial microwave transmission system utilizing a space relay station. Satellites have proved invaluable in extending the reach of voice, data, and video communications around the globe and into the most remote regions of the world. Exotic applications such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) would have been unthinkable without the benefit of satellites.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Microwave radio, a form of radio transmission that use. Ultra-high frequencies developed out of experiments with radar (radio detecting and ranging) during the period preceding World War II. There are several frequency ranges assigned to microwave systems, all of which are in the Giga Hertz (GHz) range and the wavelength in the millimeter range. This very short wavelength gives rise to the term microwave. Such high frequency signals are especially susceptible to attenuation and, therefore must be amplified or repeated after a particular distance.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Radio waves, also called radio waves as they were discovered by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1888, are electromagnetic waves, that is to say the combined oscillation of an electric field and a magnetic field. Radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays or gamma rays are all examples of electromagnetic waves.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Now, in wider sense we may understand that a transmitter or sender may be a terminal (computer) responsible for with communication and application software controls the terminal and processes data. There may be more than one terminal connected to the sender.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

This may be considered as the breakthrough for many of current ideas, algorithms and Internet technologies. It started Paul Baran in 1960s funded by Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), an organization of the united States Defense Department and, therefore, named as Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) predecessor of the modern Internet. It was world's first fully operational packet switching computer network and the world's first successful computer network to implement the TCP/IP reference model that was used earlier by ARPANET, before being used in the Internet. The ARPANET is the first network that planed the seed of interent.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

Flooding is the static routing algorithm. In this algorithm, every incoming packet is sent on all outgoing lines except the line on which it has arrived.

One major problem of this algorithm is that it generates a large number of duplicate packets on the network.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• Tunneling is an internetworking strategy that is used when source and destination networks of same type are connected through a network of different type.

• In such a case, the packet from one network reaches the other network via different kind pf network that interconnects them.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

The notion of quality of service, or QoS, concerns certain characteristics of a network connection under the sole of the network service provider liability.

A QoS value applies to the whole of a network connection. It must be identical at both ends of the connection, even if it is supported by several interconnected subnetworks each offering different services.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: Communication Networks

• Bluetooth is, with the infrared, one of the major wireless technologies developed to achieve WPAN. Bluetooth is a wireless LAN technology used to connect devices of different functions such as telephones, computers (laptop or desktop), notebooks, cameras, printers and so on. Bluetooth is an example of personal area network.
• Bluetooth project was started by SIG (Special Interest Group) formed by four companies  IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba for interconnecting computing and communicating devices using short-range, lower-power, inexpensive wireless radios.
• The project was named Bluetooth after the name of Viking king – Harald Blaatand who unified Denmark and Norway in 10th century.
• Nowadays, Bluetooth technology is used for several computer and non computer application:

1. It is used for providing communication between peripheral devices like wireless mouse or keyboard with the computer.
2. It is used by modern healthcare devices to send signals to monitors.
3. It is used by modern communicating devices like mobile phone, PDAs, palmtops etc to transfer data rapidly.
4. It is used for dial up networking. Thus allowing a notebook computer to call via a mobile phone.
5. It is used for cordless telephoning to connect a handset and its local base station.
6. It also allows hands-free voice comml1nication with headset.
7. It also enables a mobile computer to connect to a fixed LAN.
8. It can also be used for file transfer operations from one mobile phone to another.
9. Bluetoothusesomnidirectionalradio waves that can through wallsor othernon-metalbarriers.

Bluetooth devices have a built-in short range radio transmitter. The rate provided is 1Mbps and uses 2.4 GHz bandwidth.

Bluetooth is that when the device is with in the scope of a other devices automatically start the transfer information without the user noticing. small network between the devices is created and the user can accessed as if there were cables.

Bluetooth Architecture

Bluetooth architecture defines two types of networks:

1. Piconet

2. Scattemet

1. Piconet

• Piconet is a Bluetooth network that consists of one primary (master) node and seven active secondary (slave) nodes.

• Thus, piconet can have upto eight active nodes (1 master and 7 slaves) or stations within the distance of 10 meters.

• There can be only one primary or master station in each piconet.

• The communication between the primary and the secondary can be one-to-one or one-to-many.


• All communication is between master and a slave. Salve-slave communication is not possible.

• In addition to seven active slave station, a piconet can have upto 255 parked nodes. These parked nodes are secondary or slave stations and cannot take part in communication until it is moved from parked state to active state.

2. Scatternet

• Scattemet is formed by combining various piconets.

• A slave in one piconet can act as a master or primary in other piconet.

• Such a station or node can receive messages from the master in the first piconet and deliver the message to its slaves in other piconet where it is acting as master. This node is also called bridge slave.

• Thus a station can be a member of two piconets.

• A station cannot be a master in two piconets.


Bluetooth layers and Protocol Stack

• Bluetooth standard has many protocols that are organized into different layers.

• The layer structure of Bluetooth does not follow OS1 model, TCP/IP model or any other known model.

• The different layers and Bluetooth protocol architecture.

                 Bluetooth layers and protocol architecture

Radio Layer

• The Bluetooth radio layer corresponds to the physical layer of OSI model.

• It deals with ratio transmission and modulation.

• The radio layer moves data from master to slave or vice versa.

• It is a low power system that uses 2.4 GHz ISM band in a range of 10 meters.

• This band is divided into 79 channels of 1MHz each. Bluetooth uses the Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) method in the physical layer to avoid interference from other devices or networks.

• Bluetooth hops 1600 times per second, i.e. each device changes its modulation frequency 1600 times per second.

• In order to change bits into a signal, it uses a version of FSK called GFSK i.e. FSK with Gaussian bandwidth filtering.

Baseband Layer

• Baseband layer is equivalent to the MAC sublayer in LANs.

• Bluetooth uses a form of TDMA called TDD-TDMA (time division duplex TDMA).

• Master and slave stations communicate with each other using time slots.

• The master in each piconet defines the time slot of 625 µsec.

• In TDD- TDMA, communication is half duplex in which receiver can send and receive data but not at the same time.

• If the piconet has only no slave; the master uses even numbered slots (0, 2, 4, ...) and the slave uses odd-numbered slots (1, 3, 5, .... ). Both master and slave communicate in half duplex mode. In slot 0, master sends & secondary receives; in slot 1, secondary sends and primary receives.

• If piconet has more than one slave, the master uses even numbered slots. The slave sends in the next odd-numbered slot if the packet in the previous slot was addressed to it.

• In Baseband layer, two types of links can be created between a master and slave. These are:

1. Asynchronous Connection-less (ACL)

• It is used for packet switched data that is available at irregular intervals.

• ACL delivers traffic on a best effort basis. Frames can be lost & may have to be retransmitted.

• A slave can have only one ACL link to its master.

• Thus ACL link is used where correct delivery is preferred over fast delivery.

• The ACL can achieve a maximum data rate of 721 kbps by using one, three or more slots.

2. Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO)

• sco is used for real time data such as sound. It is used where fast delivery is preferred over accurate delivery.

• In an sco link, a physical link is created between the master and slave by reserving specific slots at regular intervals.

• Damaged packet; are not retransmitted over sco links.

• A slave can have three sco links with the master and can send data at 64 Kbps.

Logical Link, Control Adaptation Protocol Layer (L2CAP)

• The logical unit link control adaptation protocol is equivalent to logical link control sublayer of LAN.

• The ACL link uses L2CAP for data exchange but sco channel does not use it.

• The various function of L2CAP is:

1. Segmentation and reassembly

• L2CAP receives the packets of upto 64 KB from upper layers and divides them into frames for transmission.

• It adds extra information to define the location of frame in the original packet.

• The L2CAP reassembles the frame into packets again at the destination.

2. Multiplexing

• L2CAP performs multiplexing at sender side and demultiplexing at receiver side.

• At the sender site, it accepts data from one of the upper layer protocols frames them and deliver them to the Baseband layer.

• At the receiver site, it accepts a frame from the baseband layer, extracts the data, and delivers them to the appropriate protocol1ayer.

3. Quality of Service (QOS)

• L2CAP handles quality of service requirements, both when links are established and during normal operation.

• It also enables the devices to negotiate the maximum payload size during connection establishment.

Bluetooth Frame Format

The various fields of blue tooth frame format are:

                 Bluetooth Frame Format

1. Access Code: It is 72 bit field that contains synchronization bits. It identifies the master.

2. Header: This is 54-bit field. It contain 18 bit pattern that is repeated for 3 time.

The header field contains following subfields:

(i) Address: This 3 bit field can define upto seven slaves (1 to 7). If the address is zero, it is used for broadcast communication from primary to all secondaries.

(ii)Type: This 4 bit field identifies the type of data coming from upper layers.

(iii) F: This flow bit is used for flow control. When set to 1, it means the device is unable to receive more frames.

(iv) A: This bit is used for acknowledgement.

(v) S: This bit contains a sequence number of the frame to detect retransmission. As stop and wait protocol is used, one bit is sufficient.

(vi) Checksum: This 8 bit field contains checksum to detect errors in header.

3. Data: This field can be 0 to 2744 bits long. It contains data or control information coming from upper layers


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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.SC (Computer Science), MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.

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